Ulaid

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Féach freisin Cúige Uladh

Ard-ríocht nó 'cúige' i n-oirdheisceart na hÉireann le linn na meánaoise ba ea Ulaid. Cónaidhm dreamanna nó finí éagsúla a bhí ann.[1] Thugtaí Rí UladRí in Chóicid (Rí an Chúige) ar a rí.[2][3][4]

Ulaid le linn na 10ú agus 11ú–haoiseanna, le trí phríomh-fho-ríocht (gan Dál Riada).

Ulaid also refers to a people of early Ireland, and it is from them that the province of Ulster derives its name.[4] Some of the dynasties within the over-kingdom claimed descent from the Ulaid, whilst others are cited as being of Cruithne descent. In historical documents, the term Ulaid was used to refer to the population-group, of which the Dál Fiatach was the ruling dynasty.[4] As such the title Rí Ulad held two meanings: over-king of Ulaid; and king of the Ulaid, as in the Dál Fiatach.[2][4]

The Ulaid feature prominently in the Rúraíocht of miotaseolaíocht na nGael.

According to legend, the ancient territory of Ulaid spanned the whole of the modern province of cúige Uladh, excluding Contae an Chabháin, but including Contae Lú.[1][5] Its southern border was said to stretch from the River Drowes in the west to the An Bhóinn in the east.[1][5][4] At the onset of the historic period of Irish history in the 6th century, the territory of Ulaid was largely confined to east of the An Bhanna, as it is said to have lost land to the Oirialla and the Uí Néill an Tuaisceart.[1] Ulaid ceased to exist after its conquest in the late 12th century by the Anglo-Norman knight John de Courcy, and was replaced with the Tiarnas na nUladh.[1]

An individual from Ulaid was known in Irish as an Ultach, agus dá bharr Mac an Ultaigh.[6]

Sanasaíocht[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Ulaid is a plural noun and originated as an ethnonym. As usually happens with Irish nomenclature, it became associated with the area, even though the ruling dynasty no longer had links to that fine.[7][8][9] Ulaid was also one of the legendary five provinces of Ireland, Cóiced Ulad, "Cúige Uladh". After loss of territory to the Oirialla agus Uí Néill an Tuaiscirt, the eastern remnant of the province that formed medieval Ulaid was known as in Cóiced.[2]

The Ulaid are likely the Ούολουντιοι (Uoluntii or Voluntii) mentioned in Tolamaes 2nd century Geographia.[10] This may be a corruption of Ούλουτοι (Uluti). The name is likely derived from the Gaelic ul, meaning "féasóg".[11][12] The late 7th-century writer, Muirchú, spells Ulaid as Ulothi in his work the Beatha Phádraig.[13]

Ulaid gave its name to Ulster as Béarla, though the exact composition of it is disputed. It may derive from Ulaidh with or without the Norse genitive s and Irish tír ("land, country, earth"),[14][15] or else the second element may be Norse -ster (meaning "place", common in Shetland and Norway).[16][17]

The Ulaid are also referred to as being of the Clanna Rudraige, a late form of group-name.[18]

Réamhstair[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tolamaes Geographia, written in the 2nd century, places the Uoluntii in the southeast of what is now Ulster, somewhere south of the Abhainn an Lagáin and north of the An Bhóinn. To their north were the Darini and to their south were the Eblani. Muirchú's "Life of Patrick", written in the 7th century, also says that the territory of the Ulothi lay between the Lagan and the Boyne.[19] In the Rúraíocht of miotaseolaíocht na nGael — which survives in texts from the 8th century onward — the pre-historic Ulaid are said to dominate the whole north of Ireland, their southern border stretching from the An Bhoinn in the east to the An Drobhaois in the west, with their capital at Eamhain Mhacha near present-day Ard Mhacha.[4][15]

The Ulaid feature in Irish legends and historical traditions of prehistoric times, most notably in the group of sagas known as the Ulster Cycle. These stories are set during the reign of the Ulaid king Conchobar mac Nessa at Emain Macha (Navan Fort, near Armagh) and tell of his conflicts with the Connachta, led by queen Medb and her husband Ailill mac Máta. The chief hero is Conchobar's nephew Cú Chulainn, and the central story is the proto-epic Táin Bó Cúailnge, "The Cattle Raid of Cooley".

In this period Ireland is said to have been divided into five independent over-kingdoms—or cuigeadh, literally meaning "a fifth"—of which Ulaid was one, with its capital at Emain Macha.[20][21][22] Medieval pseudo-historians called this era Aimser na Coicedach, which has been translated as: "Time of the Pentarchs";[21] "Time of the Five Fifths";[20] and "Time of the provincial kings".[23] It was also described as "the Pentarchy".[21][22]

In some stories Conchobar's birth and death are synchronised with those of Christ, which creates an apparent anachronism in the presence of the Connachta. The historical Connachta were a group of dynasties who traced their descent to the legendary king Conn Cétchathach, whose reign is traditionally dated to the 2nd century.[24] However, the chronology of early Irish historical tradition is inconsistent and highly artificial.[25] One early saga makes Fergus mac Léti, one of Conchobar's predecessors as king of the Ulaid, a contemporary of Conn,[26] and Tírechán's 7th century memoir of Saint Patrick says that Cairbre Nia Fer, Conchobar's son-in-law in the sagas, lived only 100 years before the saint, i.e. in the 4th century.[27]

Kenneth Jackson, based on his estimates on the survival of oral tradition, also suggested that the Ulster Cycle originated in the 4th century.[28] Other scholars, following T. F. O'Rahilly, propose that the sagas of the Ulster Cycle derive from the wars between the Ulaid and the midland dynasties of the Connachta and the nascent Uí Néill in the 4th and 5th centuries, at the end of which the Ulaid lost much of their territory, and their capital, to the new kingdoms of the Airgíalla.[29] Traditional history credits this to the Three Collas, three great-great-great-grandsons of Conn, who defeated the Ulaid king Fergus Foga at Achad Lethderg in County Monaghan, seized all Ulaid territory west of the Newry River and Lough Neagh, and burned Emain Macha. Fergus Foga is said to have been the last king of the Ulaid to reign there. The Annals of the Four Masters dates this to AD 331.[30] O'Rahilly and his followers believe the Collas are literary doublets of the sons of Niall Noígiallach, eponymous founder of the Uí Néill, who they propose were the true conquerors of Emain in the 5th century.[31]

The Kings of Tara in the Ulster Cycle are the kindred of the Ulaid, the Érainn, and are generally portrayed sympathetically, especially Conaire Mór. It was remembered that the Connachta and Uí Néill had not yet taken the kingship. Tara was later occupied by the Laigin, who are to some extent strangely integrated with the Connachta in the Ulster Cycle.[32] The latter later took the midlands from the Laigin and their historical antagonism is legendary. The Érainn, led by Cú Roí, also rule in distant Munster and, while presented as deadly rivals of the Ulaid, are again portrayed with unusual interest and sympathy.

According to legend, around 331 AD na Trí Cholla invaded Ulaid, destroyed its ancient capital Eamhain Mhacha, and restricted Ulaid to the eastern part of its territory: east of the An Bhanna and An Rí.[33][34] It is said that the territory the Three Collas conquered became the kingdom of Oirialla.[33]

Another tradition that survived until the 11th century dated the fall of Eamhain Macha to 450 AD, within the time of Naomh Pádraig, which may explain why he chose Armagh, near Emain Macha, as the site of his episcopacy, as it would then still be under Ulaid control.[34] It may also explain why he was buried in eastern Ulster in the restricted territory of the Ulaid rather than at Armagh, as it had by then come under Oiriall control.[34] It is likely that the Oirialla were not settlers in Ulaid territory, but indigenous tribes;[35] most of whom were vassals of the Ulaid before casting off Ulaid overlordship and becoming independent.[36] It has been suggested that the Airthir — in whose lands lay Emain Macha — were originally an Ulaid tribe before becoming one of the Oirialla.[37]

Towards the end of the 5th century, the Ulaid sub-group Dál Riada, located in the Glinnte Aontroma, had started settling in modern-day Alba, forming a cross-channel kingdom.[38] Their first settlements were in the region of Argyll, which means "eastern province of the Gael".[38]

Stair[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tháinig na hUlaid sa ré stairiúil i nÉirinn sa 6ú haois isteach leis na teorainn úd taobh thoir den Bhanna, cé go raibh críocha ag an Dáil Araí raibh thiar di i gContae Dhoire.[4]

6th to 7th centuries[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Faoi lár na 6ú haoise, the Dál Riada in Scotland came under serious threat from Bridei I, rí na gCruithneach, agus dá bharr in them seeking the Northern Uí Néill an Tuaisceart aid.[38] The king of Dál Riada, Áedán mac Gabráin, had already granted the island of Oileán Í off the coast of Scotland to the Cenél Conaill prince and saint, Columba. In turn in 575, at Droim Ceat, he negotiated an alliance between the Northern Uí Néill and Dál Riada.[38] The pact removed the Dál Riata from Ulaid's overlordship, allowing it to concentrate on its Scottish domain.[38] That same year, either before or after the convention of Druim Ceit, the king of Dál Riada was killed in a bloody battle with the Dál nAraidi at Fid Euin.[39]

In 563, according to the Annála Uladh, an internal struggle amongst the Cruthin resulted in Báetán mac Cinn making a deal with the Uí Néill an Tuaisceart, promising them the territories of Ard Eólairg (Aird Mhic Giollagáin) and the Laoi, both west of the An Bhanna.[4] As a result, the Cath Móin Dairi Lothair took place between Uí Néill and an alliance of Cruithne kings, in which the Cruithne suffered a devastatng defeat.[4] Afterwards, the Uí Néill settled their Airgíalla allies in the Cruthin territory of Eilne, which lay between the An Bhanna and the An Bhuais.[4] The defeated Cruithne alliance meanwhile consolidated themselves in Dál nAraidi.[4]

The Dál nAraidi king Congal Cáech took the overlordship of Ulaid in 626, and in 628 killed the Ard-Rí na hÉireann, Suibne Menn of the Northern Uí Néill in battle.[40] In 629, Congal led the Dál nAraidi to defeat against the same foes.[4] In an attempt to have himself installed as High King, Congal made alliances with Dál Riata and Strathclyde, which resulted in the disastrous Cath Moira in 637, in modern-day County Down, which saw Congal slain by High King Domnall mac Áedo of the Uí Néill an Tuaiscirt and resulted in Dál Riada losing possession of its Scottish lands.[40]

The Annála Uladh record that in 668, the battle of Bellum Fertsi (modern-day Belfast) took place between the Ulaid and Cruithne, both terms which then referred to the Dál Fiatach and Dál nAraide respectively.[4]

Meanwhile, the Dál nAraidi where still resisting the encroaching Northern Uí Néill and in 681, Dúngal Eilni, king of the Dál nAraidi, and his ally Cenn Fáelad of Ciannachta were killed at Dún Cethirinn.[4]

8th to 10th centuries[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

By the 8th century the territory of the Ulaid shrunk to east of the Bann into what is now the modern-day counties Antrim, Down and Louth.[15] In either 732 or 735, the Ulaid suffered a heavy defeat at the hands of the Cenél nEógain led by Áed Allán in the battle of Fochart in Magh Muirthemne,[41] which saw the king of Ulaid, Áed Róin, decapitated.[42] As a result, the Cenél nEógain brought Conaille Muirthemne under their suzerainty.[41][43][44]

The taking over of the Ulaid's ancestral lands by first the Northern Uí Néill and the end of their glory led to a constant antagonism between them.[15] It was in the 8th century that the kingdom of Dál Riata was overrun by the Dál nAraidi.[45]

The Dál Fiatach dynasty held sway over Ulaid until the battle of Leth Cam in 827, when they attempted to remove Airgíalla from Northern Uí Néill dominance.[13] The Dál Fiatach may have been distracted by the presence of at least one Viking base along Strangford Lough, and by the end of the century, the Dál nAraidi had risen to dominance over them. However, this only lasted until 972, when Eochaid mac Ardgail restored Dál Fiatach's fortunes.[13]

During the 9th and 10th centuries, the Vikings had founded several bases in Ulaid, primarily at Annagassan, Carlingford Lough, Lough Neagh, and Strangford Lough.[46] There was also a significant port at Ulfreksfjord, located at Latharna, present-day Larne, County Antrim.[46] All but Ulfreksfjord were destroyed by the combined efforts of the Ulaid and the Northern Uí Néill, however as a result they deprived themselves of the economic advantages provided by prosperous Viking settlements.[46]

11th century[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

In 1000 the Viking king of Dublin, Sigtrygg Silkbeard, was expelled by Brian Boru the High King of Ireland, and was refused sanctuary by the Ulaid.[47] Eventually Sigtrygg was forced to return to Dublin and submitted to Brian.[48] Sigtrygg didn't forget the Ulaid's refusal,[47] and in 1001 his fleet plundered Inis Cumhscraigh and Cill Cleithe in Dál Fiatach, taking many prisoners.[49] Sigtrygg's forces also served in Brian's campaigns against the Ulaid in 1002 and 1005.[47][50]

At Craeb Telcha in 1003 the Northern Uí Néill and Ulaid fought a major battle, the Ulaid inauguration site.[13][15][51] Here Eochaid mac Ardgail, and most of Ulaid's nobility were slaughtered, along with the Northern Uí Néill king.[13][15] The result was a bloody succession war amongst the princes of the Dál Fiatach, who also had to war with the Dál nAraidi who eyed the kingship.[52]

In 1005, Brian Boru, marched north to accept submissions from the Ulaid, and set-up camp at Emain Macha possibly with the intention of exploiting the symbolism it held for the Ulaid.[52] From here, Boru marched to the Dál nAraidi capital, Ráith Mór, where he received only the submissions of their king and that of the Dál Fiatach.[52] This however appears to have been the catalyst for a series of attacks by Flaithbertach Ua Néill, king of the Cenél nEógain, to punish the Ulaid.[53] In 1006, an army led by Flaithbertach marched into Leth Cathail and killed its king, followed by the slaying of the heir of Uí Echach Cobo at Loughbrickland.[53]

The battle of Craeb Telcha resulted in the inability of the Ulaid to provide any useful aid to Boru, when in 1006 he led an army made up of men from all over Ireland in an attempt to force the submission of the Northern Uí Néill.[15][53] Having marched through the lands of the Cenél Conaill and Cenél nEógain, Boru led his army across the River Bann at Fersat Camsa (Macosquin) and into Ulaid, where he accepted submissions from the Ulaid at Craeb Telcha, before marching south and through the traditional assembly place of the Conaille Muirtheimne at i n-oenach Conaille.[53]

Flaithbertach Ua Néill continued his attacks on Ulaid in 1007, attacking the Conaille Muirtheimne.[53] In 1011, the same year Boru finally achieved hegemony over the entire of Ireland, Flaithbertach launched an invasion of Ulaid, and after destroying Dún Echdach (Duneight, south of Lisburn) and the surrounding settlement, took the submission of the Dál Fiatach, who had the Ulaid kingship, thus removing them from Boru's over-lordship.[54] The next year, Flaithbertach raided the Ards peninsula and took an uncountable number of spoils.[54]

At Ulfreksfjord in 1018, a combined force of native Irish, led by a king called Conchobar, and their Norse allies, led by Eyvind Urarhorn, defeated a major Viking expedition launched by the Earl of Orkney, Einar Sigurdsson, who was aiming to re-assert his father's lordship over the seaways between Ireland and Scotland.[55][56] In 1022, Niall mac Eochaid, the king of Ulaid, inflicted a major defeat on Sigtrygg's Dublin fleet, decimating it and taking its crew captive.[57][58] In revenge, Niall followed up this victory in 1026 attacking Finn Gall, a Viking settlement just north of Dublin itself.[57][58]

Sigtrygg's nephew, Ivar Haraldsson, plundered Rathlin Island just off the north coast of Ulaid in 1038 and again in 1045.[59] The latter attack saw Ímar kill Ragnall Ua Eochada, the heir-apparent of Ulaid and brother of Niall mac Eochaid, along with 300 Ulaid nobles.[59][60][61] In retribution Niall again attacked Finn Gall.[59] In 1087, a son of the king of Ulaid, allied with two grandsons Ragnall, attacked the Isle of Man in a failed attempt to oust Godred Crovan, king of Dublin and the Isles.[62][63][64]

At the end of the 11th century, the Ulaid had a final revival under Donn Sléibe mac Echdacha, from whom descended the Mac Dúinn Shléibe—anglicised MacDonlevy—kings that ruled Ulaid in the 12th century, with the Dál Fiatach kingship restricted to their dynasty after 1137.[65] They developed close ties with the kingdom of the Isles.[13] The Mac Dúinn Shléibe kings desperately maintained the independence of Ulaid from the Mac Lochlainn rulers of the Northern Uí Néill.[45]

12th century[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

By the beginning of the 12th century the Dál nAraidi, ruled by the Ó Loingsigh (O'Lynch), had lost control of most of Antrim to the Ua Flainn (O'Lynn) and became restricted to a stretch of land in south Antrim with their base at Mag Line (Moylinny). The Ua Flainn were the ruling sept of the Airgíallan Uí Thuirtre as well as rulers of Fir Lí, both of which lay west of the River Bann. In a process of gradual infiltration by marital and military alliances as well as growing pressure from the encroaching Cenél nEógain, they moved their power east of the Bann. Once they had come to prominence in Antrim the Ua Flainn styled themselves as king of Dál nAraidi, Dál Riata, and Fir Lí, alongside their own Uí Thuirtre.[45]

By 1130, the most southerly part of Ulaid, Conaille Muirtheimne, had been conquered by Donnchad Ua Cerbaill, king of Airgíalla.[66] The part of Muirtheimne called Cualigne was subsequently settled by the Airgíallan Uí Méith (from which Omeath derives its name).[66]

The earliest Irish land charter to survive is that of the grant in 1157 of land to the Cistercians in Newry, which lay in Uí Echach, by the High King Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn.[67] This grant was made with the consent of the king of Ulaid, Cú Ulad Mac Dúinn Sléibe, and the king of Uí Echach, Domnall Ua hÁeda.[67]

The Annals of Ulster record that in April 1165, the Ulaid, ruled by Eochaidh Mac Dúinn Sléibe, turned against Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn, and attacked the Uí Méith as well as the Uí Breasail in modern barony Oneilland East, County Armagh (which was also formerly part of Ulaid), and the Dál Riata.[68] In retaliation Mac Lochlainn led a force consisting of the Northern Uí Néill and Airgíalla into Ulaid killing many and expelling Eochaid from the kingship.[68] In September Eochaid tried to reclaim the kingship, however was expelled by his own people who feared reprisals from Mac Lochlainn, upon whose command had Eochaid confined by Ua Cerbaill.[68] The next month Mac Lochlainn led another raid into Ulaid, receiving their hostages along with a large amount of their treasure.[68] Later that same month Ua Cerbaill along with Eochaid held a meeting with Mac Lochlainn where Eochaid requested the kingship of Ulaid in return for the hostages of all Ulaid, which included the son of every chief along with his own daughter.[68] Eochaid also gave Mac Lochlainn a considerable amount of treasure along with the territory of Bairrche, and the townland of Saul.[67][68] In turn, Mac Lochlainn swore an oath to the Bishop of Armagh amongst other nobles for his good behaviour. Mac Lochlainn then give Bairrche to Ua Cerbaill for his part in mediating what turned out to be short-lived reconciliation.[66][68][69] Over the following century, the Airgíallan Mughdorna would settle Bairrche, and from them derives its present-day name of Mourne.[66] Despite his oath, Muirchertach had Eochaid seized and blinded, after which his allies abandoned him, and he was reduced to a handful of followers. With sixteen of these closest associates, he was killed in 1166.

In 1170 Eochaid's brother Magnus who had become king of Ulaid expelled the Augustinian canons from Saul.[67]

Ulaid and the Normans[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Despite the turmoil amongst the Ulaid, they continued to survive but not for much longer. In 1177 Ulaid was invaded by the Normans led by John de Courcy, who in a surprise attack captured and held the Dál Fiatach capital, Dún De Lethglaise, forcing the Ulaid over-king, Ruaidrí Mac Duinn Sléibe (Rory MacDonleavy), to flee.[70][71] A week later, Mac Duinn Sléibe returned with a great host from across Ulaid, and despite heavily outnumbering de Courcy's forces, were defeated.[72][73] In another attempt to retake Dún De Lethglaise, Mac Duinn Sléibe followed up with an even greater force made up a coalition of Ulster's powers that included the king of the Cenél nEógain, Máel Sechnaill Mac Lochlainn, and the chief prelates in the province such as the archbishop of Armagh and the bishop of Down.[72][73] Once again however the Normans won, capturing the clergy and many of their relics.[72][73]

In 1178, after John de Courcy had retired to Glenree in Machaire Conaille (another name for Conaille Muirtheimne), Mac Duinn Sléibe, along with the king of Airgíalla, Murchard Ua Cerbaill (Murrough O'Carroll), attacked the Normans, killing around 450, and suffering 100 fatalities themselves.[74]

Despite forming alliances, constant inter-warring amongst the Ulaid and against their Irish neighbours continued oblivious to the threat of the Normans.[71] De Courcy would take advantage of this instability and over the following years, despite some setbacks, set about conquering the neighbouring districts in Ulaid shifting the focus of power.[70][71]

By 1181, Mac Duinn Sléibe and Cú Mide Ua Flainn, the king of Uí Thuirtre and Fir Lí in County Antrim, had come around and served loyally as sub-kings of de Courcy.[75] Mac Duinn Sléibe, possibly inspired by the chance to restore Ulaid to its ancient extent, may have encouraged de Courcy to campaign westwards, which saw attacks on Armagh in 1189 and then Derry and the Inishowen peninsula in 1197.[75]

De Courcy would style himself as princeps Ultoniae, "master of Ulster", and ruled his conquests like an independent king.[71] The Uí Echach Coba in central and western Down however escaped conquest.[70]

In 1199 King John I of England sent Hugh de Lacy to arrest de Courcy and take his possessions. In 1205, de Lacy was made the first Earl of Ulster, founding the Earldom of Ulster, with which he continued the conquest of the Ulaid. The earldom would expand along the northern coast of Ulster all the way to the Cenél nEógain's old power-base of Inishowen.

Until the end of the 13th century, the Dál Fiatach, still led by the Mac Dúinnshléibe, retained a fraction of their power being given the title of rex Hibernicorum Ulidiae, meaning "king of the Irish of Ulaid".[76] The Gaelic title of rí Ulad, meaning "king of Ulster", upon the extinction of Dál Fiatach was usurped by the encroaching Ó Néills of the Cenél nEógain.[76]

Críostaíocht[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Ba é i nUlaid a gabhadh i ngéibheann Pádraig, naomhphátrún na hÉireann níos déanaí anonn.[77] Is ann a thug sé a chéad iompaithigh chun na Críostaíochta, agus an Dál Fiatach an chéad rítheaghlach a d'iompaigh.[77] Fuair Pádraig bás i Sabhall Phádraig, agus adhlacadh é ag Dún De Leathglaise, áit a ath-ainmníodh sa 13ú haois go Dún Pádraig.[78]

Uaigh Naomh Pádraig ag Dún Pádraig

Nuair a cruthaíodh deoisí na hÉireann sa 12ú haois, bunaíodh iad ar phríomhchríocha na nUlad mar a leanas:

  • Deoise an Dúin: bunaithe ar chríocha an Dáil Fiatach, agus an ardeaglais ag Beannchar, cé gur bhog John de Courcy níos déanaí go Dún Pádraig e.
  • Deoise Conaire: bunaithe ar chríocha an Dáil Araí.[79][80]
  • Deoise an Droma Mhóir: timpeall na bliana 1197, scaradh Deoise an Dúin i ndá leath, agus cruthaithe an deoise seo bunaithe ar chríocha Uíbh Eachach Cobha, agus an ardeaglais sa Droim Mór.[79][80]
  • Deoise an Dúin agus Chonaire: sa bhliain 1439, aontaíodh deoisí an Dúin agus Conaire in aon deoise amháin.

[[File:DioceseDownandConnor.png|mion|220px|Deoise an Dúin agus Chonaire, aibhsithe le donn, tar éis di bheith aontaithe sa bhliain 1439. Ó dheas tá Deoise an Droma Mhór.

Is iad a leanas príomh-mainistreacha na nUlad:

  • Mag Bile, Maigh Bhile, Contae an Dúin.[81] Príomheaglais an Dáil Fiatach ba ea é, go deimhin, bunaithe ag Naomh Finnian Maigh Bhile den dál úd.[81][82]
  • Bennchar, Beannchar, Contae an Dúin.[83] Tógadh c. 555 - 559 ag Naomh Comgall den Dál nAraí i gcríocha i seilbh an Dáil Fiatach, ar cheann desna príomh-mhainistreacha i nÉirinn.[82][83]
  • Condaire, Conaire, Contae Aontroma.[84] Príomheaglais an Dál Araí a bhí ann, suite i dtuath Dhál Sailne, bunaithe ag Naomh Mac Nisse.[84][85][86] Bheadh sé in am trátha ardeaglais dheoise Chonnaire.
  • Airther Maigi, Oirthear Maí, Contae Aontroma.[87] Príomheaglais an Dáil Riada bunaithe ag by Naomh Olcan. Tar éis leathadh an Dáil Araí sa 7ú haois, chaill sé a stádas easpagach agus tháinig Eaglais Conaire chun cinn ina háit.[86]
  • Droim Mór, Contae an Dúin.[88] Príomh eaglais Uíbh Eachach Cobha an bhí inti, bunaithe c. 510 ag Naomh Colmán.[89] In an trátha, bheadh sé ina hard-eaglais dheoise an Droma Mhóir

Déantáin[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Cé nach bhfuarthas ach pas beag déantán La Tène in Éirinn,[90] fuarthas an chuid is mó dóibh siúd — gaiscí agus píosaí úma — i dtuaisceart na tíre. Tugann seo le fios gur 'tháinig buíonta beaga lonnaitheoirí' ón Bhreatain sa 3ú haois RC, agus is dócha may have been absorbed into the Ulaid population.[91]

Ríochtaí, rítheaghlaigh, clanna[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

According to historical tradition, the ruling dynasties of the Ulaid where either of the Ulaid population-group or the Cruithne. Medieval Irish genealogists traced the descent of the Ulaid from the legendary Ard-Rí na hÉireann, Rudraige mac Sithrigi.[92] The Cruthin on the other hand is the Irish term for the Cruithnigh, and are stated as initially being the most powerful and numerous of the two groupings.[4] The terms Ulaid and Cruthin in early sources referred to the Dál Fiatach and Dál nAraidi respectively, the most powerful dynasties of both groups.[4]

The general scholarly consensus since the time of Eoin MacNeill has been that the Ulaid were kin to the Éarainn,[93] or at least to their royal families, sometimes called the Clanna Dedad, and perhaps not their nebulous subject populations.[94] T. F. O'Rahilly notably believed the Ulaid were an actual branch of the Érainn.[95] Also claimed as being related to the Ulaid are the Dáirine, another name for the Érainn royalty, both of which may have been related or derived from the Darini of Ptolemy.[96]

There is uncertainty however over the actual ancestry of the people and dynasties within the medieval over-kingdom of Ulaid. Those claimed as being descended from the Ulaid people included medieval tribes that where said to be instead of the Cruthin or Érainn,[18] for example:

  • the Dál Riata, Dál Fiatach, and Uí Echach Arda are counted as being of the Ulaid. The Dál Riata and Dál Fiatach however professed to be of Érainn descent.[18][97] Despite this the term Ulaid still referred to the Dál Fiatach until the Anglo-Norman conquest of the over-kingdom in the late 12th century.[4]
  • the Conaille Muirtheimne, Dál nAraidi and Uí Echach Cobo are counted as being of the Cruthin. However, after the 8th century, the Síl Ír — the book of genealogies on the descendants of the mythical Ír — focuses on the theme that they are the fír Ulaid, "the true Ulaid".[98] The Dál nAraidi still maintained the claim in the 10th century, long after their power declined.[4][18][97]

By the 12th century Ulaid was divided into four main dynastic sub-kingdoms, each consisting of smaller petty-kingdoms:

  • Dál Fiatach, an Ulaid people based at Dún Leathglaise (present-day Dún Pádraig, County Down), who dominated the over-kingship of Ulaid and had interests in the Oileán Mhanann.[15] Their principal sept were Mhic Dúinnshléibhe.
  • Dál nAraidi, a Cruithne people, dominated by the Dál nAraidi Mag Line based at Ráth Mór (near present-day Aontroim). They were the Dál Fiatach's main challengers for the over-kingship.[15] Their principal sept were the Uí Choelbad.
  • Uí Echach Cobo, a Cruithne sept, kin with the Dál nAraidi, who also challenged for the over-kingship of Ulaid.[99] They were based in modern-day Contae an Dúin, possibly at Cnoc Uí Echach.[100] Their principal sept were the Mhic Aonghasa
  • Uí Tuirtri, originating from Oirialla, they took control of most of Dál nAraidi's territory. Its principal sept was the Uí Fhloinn.

In the 10th-century revision of the Leabhar na gCeart, the following twelve Ulaid petty-kingdoms are given as paying stipends to the king of Ulaid:[101]

  • Dál nAraidi Mag Line
  • Cobha, ruled by the Uí Echach Cobo
  • Dál Riada, based in the Gleannta Aontroma
  • Airrther, a district located in eastern Contae Ard Mhacha
  • Uí Erca Céin, a branch of the Dál nAraidi
  • Leath Cathail, a branch of the Dál Fiatach, located in and around the modern barony of Lecale, County Down[102]
  • Conaille Muirtheimne, close kin of the Uí Echach Cobo, located in and around the modern barony of Dún Dealgan, Contae Lú[102]
  • Dál mBuinne, also known as the Muintir Branáin, a branch of the Dál nAraidi located along the border area between County Antrim and Down[102]
  • Uí Blathmaic, a branch of the Dál Fiatach whose territory was located in the north-western part of the barony of An Aird and part of An Caisleán Riabhach;[102]
  • Na hArda, ruled by the Uí Echach Arda, a branch of the Dál Fiatach whose territory was located in the northern part of the Ards peninsula[103]
  • Boirche, alias Bairrche, a branch of the Dál Fiatach located in what is now the barony of Múrna in southern County Down
  • Duibhthrian, west of Loch Cuan, Contae an Dúin.

Other territories and dynasties within Ulaid included:

  • Cuailgne, located in the area of Loch Cairlinn and Dún Dealgan, Contae Lú. Their name is preserved in the name of the parish of Cuaille,[102] as well as the Cooley Peninsula. Cooley is the location of the Táin Bó Cúailnge.
  • Dál Sailni, a client-kingdom of the Dál nAraidi Mag Line. While the Uí Choelbad dynasty of Dál nAraidi supplied the principle kings, the Dál Sailni held the principle church of Connor.[85] After the Viking period, the church of Connor and the territory of the Dál Sailni were taken over by the Uí Tuirtri.[85]
  • Cineál Fhaghartaigh, an offshoot of the Uí Echach Cobo, who at one time held the modern baronies of Kinelarty, An Duifrian, and part of Castlereagh.[102]
  • Monaig, a people whose locale is disputed. The annals and historians make mention of several different Monaigs: the Monaigh Uladh, in the area of Dún Pádraig; Monaich Ulad of Rusat; Monaigh at Lough Erne, Contae Fhear Manach; Monaigh Aird, in Contae an Dúin; the Cenél Maelche/Mailche in Aontroim; Magh Monaigh; Monach-an-Dúin in Cath Monaigh, possibly in Iveagh, County Down. The ancient Manaigh/Monaigh who settled near Lough Erne, are associated with the Menapii, a Belgae tribe from northern An Ghaill.[102]

Descended houses[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

The first king of Scotland, Kenneth MacAlpin, founder of the House of Alpin, is said to descend from the mid-6th-century king of Dál Riata, Gabrán mac Domangairt. Along with this, the following Scottish Highland houses are reputed to be of Ulaid descent: McEwen, MacLachlan, McNeills, and the MacSweens.[104][105][106] The royal House of Stuart is also claimed as being descended from the Ulaid.[107]

Féach freisin[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Naisc sheachtracha[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Connolly (2007), p. 589.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 MacNeill (1919), p. 651.
  3. Fraser (2009), p. 159.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 Cosgrove (2008), pp. 212–5.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Hack (1901), p. 38.
  6. Neafsey, Edward (2002). "The Surnames of Ireland: Origins and Numbers of Selected Irish Surnames". Irish Roots. 
  7. Byrne (2001), p. 46.
  8. Duffy (2014), pp. 7–8
  9. MacNeill (1911/2), p. 60.
  10. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."". Geographia.
  11. Karl Horst Schmidt, "Insular P- and Q-Celtic", in Martin J. Ball and James Fife (eag.), The Celtic Languages, Routledge, 1993, lch. 67
  12. 1 ul, féasóg, ar eDIL
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 Duffy (2005), p. 493.
  14. Bardon (2005), p. 27.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 Duffy (2014), pp. 26–27
  16. Taylor, Rev. Isaac (1865). "Words and Places: Or, Etymological Illustrations of History, Ethnology, and Geography". Macmillan & Co.. 
  17. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  19. Duffy (2005), lch. 817
  20. 20.0 20.1 Hurbert, pp. 169–171
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Eoin MacNeill (1920). "The Five Fifths of Ireland". 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Hogan (1928), p. 1.
  23. Stafford & Gaskill, p. 75
  24. R. A. Stewart Macalister (ed. & trans.), Lebor Gabála Érenn: The Book of the Taking of Ireland Part V, Irish Texts Society, 1956, p. 331–333
  25. Byrne 2001, p. 50–51.
  26. D. A. Binchy (ed. & trans.), "The Saga of Fergus mac Léti", Ériu 16, 1952, pp. 33–48
  27. Ludwig Bieler (ed. & trans.), The Patrician Texts in the Book of Armagh, Tírechán 40
  28. Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson, The Oldest Irish Tradition: a Window on the Iron Age, Cambridge University Press, 1964
  29. O'Rahilly 1946, pp. 207–234
  30. Annals of the Four Masters M322-331
  31. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, "Ireland, 400–800", in Dáibhí Ó Cróinín (ed.), A New History of Ireland Vol 1, 2005, pp. 182–234
  32. Apparently the Laigin had a prehistoric presence in Connacht and may once have been its sovereigns. See Byrne, pp. 130 ff.
  33. 33.0 33.1 OBrien, pp. 170–1.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Schlegel, pp. 173–4.
  35. Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí. A New History of Ireland I: Prehistoric and Early Ireland. Oxford University Press, 2005, lch. 202
  36. Byrne (2001), lch. 73
  37. Dumville, David. Saint Patrick. Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 1999, lch. 151
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 Bardon (2005), p. 17.
  39. Fraser (2007), p. 317.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Bardon (2005), pp. 20–1.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Wiley, p. 19.
  42. Mac Niocaill, p. 124.
  43. Byrne (2001), p. 118.
  44. Charles-Edwards, p. 573.
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 Cosgrove (2008), p. 17.
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 Cosgrove (2008), p. 38.
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 Hudson, pp. 86–7.
  48. Ó Corráin (1972), p 123.
  49. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  50. Hudson, p. 95.
  51. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 Duffy (2014), pp. 138–9
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.3 53.4 Duffy (2014), pp. 151–4
  54. 54.0 54.1 Duffy (2014), pp. 168–9
  55. Pedersen, p. 271.
  56. Sturluson, p. 330.
  57. 57.0 57.1 Pedersen, p. 231.
  58. 58.0 58.1 Hudson, pp. 108–9.
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 Hudson, p. 136.
  60. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  61. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  62. Pedersen, p. 233.
  63. Oram (2011), p. 32.
  64. Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition - Annals of Ulster, 1087 AD
  65. Byrne (2001), p. 128.
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 66.3 Cosgrove (2008), p. 16.
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 67.3 Cosgrove (2008), p. 12.
  68. 68.0 68.1 68.2 68.3 68.4 68.5 68.6 Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition - Annals of Ulster, 1165 AD
  69. Magoo - The Mughdorna
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 Bardon (2005), pp. 33–37
  71. 71.0 71.1 71.2 71.3 Adamson (1998), pp. 116–7
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 Bardon, page 33–5.
  73. 73.0 73.1 73.2 Cosgrove (2008), p. 115.
  74. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  75. 75.0 75.1 Cosgrove (2008), p. 116.
  76. 76.0 76.1 Stockman, p. xix.
  77. 77.0 77.1 O'Hart (1976), pp. 427 & 819.
  78. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  79. 79.0 79.1 Keenan, pp. 139–140.
  80. 80.0 80.1 Keenan, pp. 347–349.
  81. 81.0 81.1 Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  82. 82.0 82.1 Carey, p. 97.
  83. 83.0 83.1 Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  84. 84.0 84.1 Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  85. 85.0 85.1 85.2 Charles-Edwards, p. 63.
  86. 86.0 86.1 Charles-Edwards, pp. 59–60.
  87. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  88. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  89. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  90. Byrne, Francis John, Irish Kings and High-Kings. Four Courts Press. 2a heagrán athbhreithnithe, 2001.
  91. Connolly, S. J., The Oxford companion to Irish history. Oxford University Press. 2a heagrán, 2007.
  92. O'Rahilly 1946, lch. 480
  93. Eoin MacNeill, "Early Irish Population Groups: their nomenclature, classification and chronology", in Proceedings of the Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann (C) 29. (1911): ll. 59–114
  94. Eoin MacNeill, Phases of Irish History. Baile Átha Cliath: M. H. Gill & Son. 1920.
  95. T. F. O'Rahilly, Early Irish History and Mythology, 1946, lch. 81
  96. Discussed at length by O'Rahilly 1946
  97. 97.0 97.1 Thornton, p. 201.
  98. Kelleher, p. 141.
  99. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  100. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  101. Dobbs, p. 78.
  102. 102.0 102.1 102.2 102.3 102.4 102.5 102.6 Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."". Ireland's History In Maps.
  103. Stockman, p. 3.
  104. John O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees; or, The Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation, 5th edition, in two volumes, originally published in Dublin in 1892, reprinted, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1976, Vol. 1, p 604
  105. John O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees; or, The Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation, 5th edition, in two volumes, originally published in Dublin in 1892, reprinted, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1976, Vol. 1, pp 558–559
  106. Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk The Highland Clans (1982) New York: Clarkson N. Potter ISBN 0-517-54659-0, pp. 117–119, The Donlevy are also reputed to have given rise in Scotland to the Highland MacEwens, Maclachlans, MacNeils and MacSweens.
  107. again, G.H. Hack Genealogical History of the Donlevy Family Columbus, Ohio: printed for private distribution by Chaucer Press, Evans Printing Co. (1901), p 38 (Wisconsin Historical Society Copy) "From the chiefs of the Dalriadians were descended the ancient Scottish kings and also the House of Stuart."

Earráid leis an lua: <ref> tag with name "Library" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.

Earráid leis an lua: <ref> tag with name "Tracts" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.

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Teimpléad:Ulaid Teimpléad:Munster