Dál nAraidi

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Ríocht (nó b'fhéídir cónaidhm treibheanna) na gCruithne ba ea an Dál Araí (Sean-Ghaeilge Dál nAraidi),[1][2] i n-oir-thuaisceart na hÉireann le linn na meánaoise. Ba chuid de 'chúige' Ulad í an ríocht, agus bhíodh a ríthe in iomaíocht leis an Dál Fiatach le haghaidh ríogacht na cúige. Ba é Ráth Mór lastigh d'Aontroim a príomhchathair. Maítear gubh é Fiacha Araí (Fiachu Araide) a sinsear eapainmneach.

Ulaid agus na trí fho-ríóchtaí (highlighted le buí) sa 10ú–11ú haoiseanna

Críocha[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Is amhlaidh go raibh an Dál Araí lonnaithe sna críocha chéanna ina raibh na Rhobogdioi (Ῥοβόγδιον) dar le Tolamaes ina shaothar, Geografaíocht. Fuarathas ann chomh maith an Dál Riada.

Bhíodh croílár chríocha an Dáil Araí suite ar bhruacha thuaidh Loch nEathach i ndeisceart Chontae Aontroma. Ó thuaidh bhíodh an Dál Riada, agus an teorainn léirithe leis An Bhuais. Ó dheas, bhíodh an teorainn léirithe leis an Ravel Water agus taobh thuaidh den Ghleann cois farraige.[3][4][5]

Géaga[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Ba é an Dál nAraidi Mag Line príomh-rítheaghlach an Dáil nAraí. Lonnaithe i ndeisceart Chontae Aontroma a bhí an dál, agus Ráth Mór a phríomhchathair.[6]

I lár na 7ú haoise, chlíogh Dál nAraidi Mag Line, faoi cheannas Uí Chóelbad, ríocht Eilne ar a thaobh taobh thiar thuaidh, agus is amhlaidh gur lonnaigh géag den dream ann.[7] In am trátha, glaodh ar an ngéag seo Dál nAraidi in Tuaiscirt agus fosta Dál nAraidi Mag nEilne.[8]

Príomhailt: Uí Echach Cobo agus Iveagh

Faoi dheireadh na 8ú haoise, bhí géaga na gCruithne suite i gContaetha Aontroma agus an Dúin scartha óna chéile de bharr leathadh an Dáil Fhiatach.[2] Tháinig an géag ina ríocht Uíbh Echach Cobo, suite ar Mhaigh Cobha i gContae an Dúin.[9][10] Dúradh gur ríthe Chobha (Cuib) iad. De réir ginealach meánoisach, de shliocht an Dáil Araí iad, cé gur lag é an nasc seo.[11] Faoin 10ú haois, bhí Uí Echach Cobo san áireamh sa dhá thuath déag desna hUlaid.[9]

Tugadh críocha Uíbh Echach Cobo mar bunús den déanacht mheánaoiseach agus cantred Normannach darbh ainm Oveh, maraon le deoise Dhroma Mhóir.[12] Galldaíodh é níos déanaí mar Iveagh. Their 14th-century expansion formed the basis for the later barútacht Uíbh Eachach.

Príomhalt: Uí Erca Céin

Géag eile den Dál nAraidi ba ea Uí Erca Céin. De réir Leabhar na gCeart den 10u haois, ar cheann de 12 tuath na nUlad ba ea é.[9][13]

Stair[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Faoi thús an ré stairiúil i nÉirinn sa 6ú haois, bhí ard-ríocht na nUlad teoranta a bheag nó a mhór taobh thoir den Bhanna.[14] Bhí críocha fós ámh ag na Cruithne taobh thiar den abhainn i Contae Dhoire. Sular their siadsan chun cinn is dócha go raibh finte níos luaite i gceannas ann.[14]

Sa bhliain 563, de réir Annála Uladh, is amhlaidh go raibh achrann inmheánach i measc na gCruithne agus mar thoradh, rinne Báetán mac Cinn margadh le hUí Néill an Tuaiscirt. Gheall sé dóibh críocha Ard Eólairg (Aird Mhic Giollagáin) agus an Lí, taobh thiar den Bhanna.[14] Mar thoradh sin, tharla Cath Mhóin Daire Lothair (Muine Mór an lae inniu) idir Uí Néill agus comhaontas ríthe Chruithne, inár cloíodh go millteanach na Chruithne.[14] I ndiaidh an catha, chuir Uí Néill a gcomhghuaillithe as Oirialla a gcónaí i nEilne, iar-chríocha Chruithne suite idir an Banna agus an Buais.[14] Idir an dá linn, chuir na Cruithne clóite atheagar orthu féin lastigh den Dál Araí.[14]

Sa bhliain 565, mharaigh Áed Dub mac Suibni, rí Dhál Araí Ulad, Diarmait mac Cerbaill, Ard-Rí, ag Ráith Beag.[6]

Sa bhliain 626, bhain rí Dhál Araí Congal Cáech ríogacht ruire na Ulad amach, agus sa bhliain 628, mharaigh sé i mbun catha an t-Ard Rí, Suibne Menn Uí Néill an Tuaiscirt.[15] Sa bhliain 629, bhí Connal i gceannas nuair a chloígh Uí Néill an Dál Araí.[14] Ag iarraidh tar éis sin an t-Ard-Ríogacht a bhaint amach do féin, bhunaigh Connal comhghuaillíochtaí leis an Dál Riada agus Srath Chluaidh. Mar thoradh siúd, tharla Cath Mhaigh Rath sa bhliain 637, inar maraíodh Connal ag an Ard-Rí Domnall mac Áedo Uí Néill an Tuaiscirt, agus i dteannta sin, lagaíodh go donna idir an Dál Araí agus an Dál Riada araon.[16][15]

Insítear san Annála Uladh Dúin bhliain 668 gur tharla Bellum Fertsi (Cath Bhéal Feirste) idir na 'hUlaid' (Dál Fiatach) and 'Cruithne' (Dál Araí).[14] Lena linn sin, bhí an Dál Araí ag tríd is aghaidh chúngrach Uí Néill an Tuaiscirt. Sa bhliain 681, maraíodh Dúngal Eilni den Dál Araí an Tuasicirt agus a chomhghuaillí Cenn Fáelad den Ciannachta as tuaisceart Dhoire ag Dún Cethirinn ag Maol Dúin den Chineál mhic Earca den Chineál Eoghain.[14][17][18]

Sa bhliain 697, measadh go raibh baint ar leith ag comhghuaillíocht éigin den Dál Araí, Cianachta Glinne Geimin agus Cenél Feradaig le bás Eochach mhic Dhomhanghairt, rí Chineál Gabráin de Dhál Riada na hAlban.[19]

Le linn na 7ú haoise, chaill na Cruithne de réir a chéile a gcuid tailte taobh thiar den Bhanna, agus bhí an Dál Araí ansin an t-aon chineál amháin na gCruithne i gContae Aontroma.[2] Tar éis na bliana 776, ní ghlaonn na hannála a thuilleadh Cruthin ar an Dál nAraidi, ach ina ionad sin fir Ulad.[2]

Sa 8ú haois, chloígh an Dál Araí ríocht an Dáil Riada.[20] Ag an am gcéanna, mhéadaigh Dál Fiatach a gcuid críoch, ag sáinniú an Dáil Araí ó Uí Eachach Cobha.[2]

Faoi dheireadh na 9ú haoise, d'éirigh leis an Dál Araí cumhacht a bhaint den Dál Fiatach. Tháinig deireadh leis an gcinseal seo go dtí an bhliain 972, nuair a chuir Eochaid mac Ardgail an Dál Fiatach i réim arís.[21]

Sa bhliain 1005, Brian Bóramha ó thuaidh chun umhlú na nUlad a glacadh. Ní bhfuair sé ámh ach umhlú rí an Dáil Araí ina phríomhchathair Ráith Mór.[22]

Faoi thús na 12ú haoise, faoi cheannas Uí Loingsigh, bhí iar-críocha an Dáil Araí i nAontroim caillte acu d'Uí Fhloinn, agus teoranta ansin i Maigh Line. Príomhchlann Uí Thoirtre as Oirialla, agus ceannairí fosta na bhFear Lí ba ea Uí Fhloinn. Mar thoradh chleamhnas agus comhghuaillíochtaí, mar aon le brú cúngaigh ó Chineál Eoghain, d'aistrigh siad féin soir thar an mBanna. Ach a raibh siad i gceannas i nAontroim, ghlaoigh siad orthu féin ní amháin tiarnaí a muintire féin, Uí Thoirtre, ach fosta ríthe Dhál Araí (in Tuaiscirt), Dhál Riada agus Fhir Lí.[20]

Cineáil agus clanna[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Príomhalt: Clanna Ulad

Se a leanas liosta chineáil/clanna/corcraí/finte/síolta/treibheanna an Dáil Araí:

  • Cenél Caeilbaidh[23]
  • Cenél Maelche[23]
  • Clann Aodha
  • Clanna Conaill Chernaig[23]
  • Clann Luirgine[23]
  • Corcraige Chaelraidi[23]
  • Corcraige Sogain[23]
  • Mac Aodh
  • Mag Aonghusa[24]
  • Mac Artáin[25]
  • Síl Ciaráin[23]
  • Síl Finghin[26]
  • Uí Chóelbad
  • Uí Coltarain
  • Uí Erca Céin[26]
  • Uí Fiachrach[27]
  • Uí Gairbhith[28]
  • Uí hAidith[29]
  • Uí hAinbheith[30]
  • Uí Labhradha[31]
  • Uí Leathlobhair[32]
  • Uí Loingsigh

Tíreolas[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tuatha[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  • Latharna:[33] Deitear gur mhac Úgaine Mór ba ea Lathar.[34] Luathdhream agus tuath Latharna ba ea Seimhne (Semne[3]), aitheanta mar [Oileán Mhic Aodha]].[35]
  • Maige Damoerna (Mag Damairne fosta):[3][36] Machaire Morna,[37] suite ar an taobh thiar de Loch Latharna.[36]
  • Dál mBuinne: aitheachthuath an Dáil Araidi Mag Line.[36][38]
  • Dál Sailni:[38] Síolraithe ó Fedhlim Sailne.[38] B'fhéidir é gur iar-shaorthuath ba ea é, ach d'éirigh sé ina aitheachthuath na Dáil Araidi Mag Line. Cé go dtagadh na ríthe as rítheaghlach Dáil nAraidi Mag Line, mar a bhí Uí Choelbad, bhíodh an phríomheaglais, Conaire, i gcríocha an Dáil Shailne.[39] Tar éis ré na Lochlanach, ghlac Uí Tuirtri as Oirialla lena cúngracht an Dál Sailni agus a eaglais.[39]
  • Tuath Sine: luaite mar aithechthúatha an Dáil Araidi Mag Line.[38]

Suíomhanna eaglasta[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  • Cill Bhaotáin, alias Ceil Scoba.[3][23] Deirtear gurb i gcríocha Cland Sogain mic Fiachrach Araidi é.[23]
  • Cill Chiannáin, suite i Seimhne.[23]
  • Cill Fhinnsiche.[3] B'fhéidir Cill Dhuinsí i mbarúntacht An Duifriain i gContae an Dúin.[23]
  • Cill Ghlas.[3][23] Deirtear gur bhunaigh Naomh Padráig an eaglais seo. Suite i nEilne, taobh thoir de Dhomhnach Mór.[23]
  • Cill Rua.[3][40] Suite ar bhruach Loch Laigh, gaolmhar le Naomh Colmán.[23]
  • Domhnach Cainri, suite i gCathraí.[3]
  • Domhnach Comhbhair.[3] An Comar i gContae and Dúin, b'fhéidir.[41] Deirtear gut tógadh an mhainistir seo ag Conla, a bhuail tráth le Naomh Pádraig.[41]
  • Domnach Mór Maige Damoerna.[3] Tuath ba ea Mag Damoerna.[37]
  • Gluaire.[3][42] Suite i dtuath Latharna, eaglais bunaithe ag Naomh Pádraig.[42]
  • Lathrach nó Leitir Pátraic,[3] aitheanta anois mar Lann Abhaigh.[34][43] Deirtear gur bhunaigh Naomh Pádraig an eaglais, a d'fhág i gceannas a dheisceabal Daniel, abhach.[43]
  • Luí Phádraig.[3]
  • Tealach nó Cill Chonadáin.[3] Paróiste Charn an Chaistil, barúntacht Gleann Arma Uachtaraigh

Dúin agus suíomhanna suntasacha[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  • Dún Daen Hi Fidbaid, Dún dá Én i fFiodhbhaidh,[3] Dún Dá Éan i bhFíobha.[44][45] D'fhéadfadh gur chine é Hi Fidbaid, mar atá Uí Fidbaid; nó fíobha/foraois.[46]
  • Ráith Aidhne, suite i Seimhne.[3][47]
  • Ráith Bacain, suite i Latharna.[34]
  • Ráith Bachall, suite i Latharna.[34]
  • Ráith Cimaeith, suite i Seimhne.[47]
  • Ráith Cind Con.[47]
  • Ráith Epscuip Fhindich in hUí Darca-chein.[3]
  • Ráith Line, suite i Maigh Line, ainm eile b'fhéidir ar Ráith Mór.[47]
  • Ráith Sithe,[3], eaglais a deirtear gur bhunnaigh Naomh Pádraig í.[48] Faightear an tagairt is luaite fuithi i nAnnála Uladh, agus bás easpaig, 'Eoghan Ratha Sithe', sa bhliain 618 á thuairisc.[48][49]

Suíomhanna eile[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Seo a leanas suíomhanna a bhíodh lastigh den Dál nAraidi, de réir fianaise:[3]

  • Airther Maigi Cobhai,[3][50][51] Oirthear Maí Chobha, suite i ríocht an Dáil Riada. Deirtear gur bhaist Naomh Pádraig Naomh Olcan anseo, agus d'insealbhaigh é mar easpag ann.
  • Alt na n-Ingen, suite i Crích Dalaraide.[50]
  • Cairloegh. Claimed as being located near Na Lee in what became the barony of Coleraine. Said to have been granted to Fiachra for defeating Ailill in the battle of Ocha.[23]
  • Cothraighe.[3][23] Located in Dál Riata, the name preserved in the barony of Cary.[3][23]
  • Cúil Raithin. Meaning "corner/nook of ferns".[52] Modern-day Coleraine. Located in Eilne, it was once an episcopal see.[3][23] A church had been founded here by St. Patrick.[23] It has been suggested that it lost its status after the Ui Choelbad ruling dynasty of the Dál nAraidi of Magh Line conquered Eilne in the mid-7th century, and a prince of theirs settled there. Their own church in Magh Line, at Domnach Combair, was also an episcopal see and they may have been content to see Cúil Raithin lose its status.[53]
  • Cúl Cáel. Where Fiacha mac Baetain, king of Dál nAraidi killed Fiacha mac Demain, king of Dál Fiatach. Possibly Kilkeel in County Down, which derives from Cill Chaoil.[23][54]
  • Cúl Fothirbi, nó Cell Fuithirbi.[23]
  • Druim Dáganda.[3]
  • Echdruim Brecain.[3] Eachdhroim.[55] It was situated according to O'Donovan along the border of Dál nAraidi and Dál Riata.[56]
  • Fan in t(s)amaisci.[57]
  • Fid Átha Luain, nó Fedha baile atha luain. Nasctha le Dún Daen Hi Fidbaid, qv..[57]
  • Imlech Cluane, suite i Seimhne.[3]
  • Inber Olarba, the estuary of the river Olarba, present-day Larne.[58]
  • Laethet.[34] The site of a battle between the Dál nAraidi and Dál Fiatach, possibly modern-day Knocklayd, in the north of County Antrim.[34] Knocklayd derives from Cnoc Leithid, meaning "hill of the slope".[59]
  • Linn Dóe, alias Linn Uachaill, which formed part of the boundary of Dál nAraidi.[34] Said to belong to the Clanna Conall Cearnach.[34]
  • Linn in Goban, alias Linn na nGobann, Cenn Guba, and Cnoc Glinne. Said to have been where the legendary figure Tuathal Techtmar was slain.[23][34] Stated as being a hill at Móin an Chatha in Magh Line.[23]
  • Ross Torathair.[3][47] Suite gar de Chúil Raithin, a battle for this place between St. Columba and St. Comgall is referenced to in the Amra Choluim Chille, the Elegy of St. Columba.[47][60]
  • Scirit, aitheanta fosta mar Scirec Archaile, meaning (Arcail: great valley).[27] Now known as Skerry. Located near Slemish in Dál nAraidi in Tuaiscirt, it was an ancient burial place.[27]

Gnéithe geograhacha[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Aibhneacha

  • Buas.[3] Modern-Irish An Bhuais, meaning "the cow-like one", modern-day River Bush.[61] A river in north-western County Antrim that was the boundary between west of Dál Riata and the east of Eilne.[3]
  • Fregabhail.[3] Modern-Irish Freabhal, meaning "towards the fork", modern-day Glenravel River.[5] Formed the northern border between Dál nAraidi and Dál Riata.[5] It also formed part of the boundary between the medieval deanerys of Tuaisceart and Ui Tuirtre.[57]
  • Inber n-Ailinne.[62]
  • Men, alias Mena, Main, Myn, modern-Irish An Mhin, meaning "the river/water", now known as the River Maine. This river flowed into "Rubha Mena", now known as Mainwater Foot, at Lough Neagh.[36][63]
  • Ollarba, alias Olarba.[3][58] Modern-day River Larne, which empties into Larne Lough.[64] Some claim it is instead the Six Mile Water, which starts near Larne and empties into Lough Neagh.[65] It was located to the south-east of Magh Line, running past Ráith Mór.[58]
  • Olar. A river that like the Olarba starts at Móin an Chatha but instead flows into Lough Neagh.[36]

Átha

  • Fertais Tuama.[3] Modern-Irish Fearsaid Thuama, meaning the "ford of Toome", present-day Toome.[66] The ford referenced crossed the River Bann near Lough Neagh.

Foraoisí

  • Conaire, also spelt as Condaire and Connere.[3][67] Modern-Irish Coinnire, meaning "(wild-)dog oak-wood", and Anglicised as Conner. It is the location of the medieval cathedral for the diocese of Connor. Its patron is stated as being St. Mac Nissi.[68]

Gleannta

  • Arcail, a great glen located to the north of Sliabh Mis. Now known as the Braid Valley.[50]
  • Glenn in Scáil, alias Muintir Diugna.[36] Near Slemish, it is where Milchú kept St. Patrick as a slave.[69]
  • Glenn Indechta.[3] Modern-Irish Gleann Fhinneachta, meaning "Finneacht's glen", Anglicised as Glynn.[4] St. Patrick is said to have founded a church here. Glenn Indechta also marked the southern boundary of the kingdom of Dál Riata.[4]

Locha

  • Loch Daim Deircc. A lake located west of Tráig Fhirgrinne Mic Dheagaid and of Uisce Labrainde, both west of Slemish.[34][70]
  • Loch Laigh, alias Loch Lóig and Loch Láig.[23][34] Modern-Irish Loch Lao, meaning "sea-inlet of the calf", now known as Belfast Lough.[71]

Macairí srl

  • Magh Latrainn, alias Lathraind, Latharrne, and Latharna, the plain of Latharna running from the hills to the sea.[36]
  • Cluain Beoan and Cluain Fiachna.[23]
  • Magh Monaich.[36]
  • Magh Séle, located in Semne.[36]
  • Móin an Chatha, the bog of which the rivers Olar and Ollarba start.[36]
  • Monai, a bog located somewhere in Dál nAraidi.[36]

Sléibhte

  • Arda Corrain. A battle occurred here between the Dál nAraidi and Dál Riata. Fiachna mac Demmain, king of Dál nAraidi and Ulaid was slain here. Possibly the hill above "the Corran of Larne".[50]
  • Cnoc Cennghaba, alias Cnoc Glinne-an-Gabhann and Cnoc Glindi Ui Gaband, located in Magh Line.[23] A prince of Fremand Fini was also slain here.[23]
  • Crich Araide Adruiad.[23] One of the mountains of Ulaid, seen from County Louth.[23]
  • Slebe Ulad. Mountains of Ulaid, containing Crích Araide Adruaid, Sliab Mis magnech, Monor nGand, and Sliab Caín Comramach Calland.[72]
  • Sliab Cáin, Sliabh Cáin, suite i nGleann an Scáil.[27]
  • Slébi Mis,[3] Sliabh Mis.[73]

Féach freisin[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Foinsí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  • Bardon, Jonathan (2005). "A History of Ulster". The Black Staff Press. 
  • Bell, Robert (2003). "The book of Ulster Surnames". The Blackstaff Press. 
  • Berry, R.J. (October 1898). "The Royal Residence of Rathmore of Moy-Linne. With Notes on Other Early Earthworks in Ulster". Ulster Journal of Archaeology 5 (1): 9–19. Ulster Archaeological Society. 
  • Byrne, F.J. (1964). "Clann Ollaman Uaisle Emna". Studia Hibernica (4): 54–94. Liverpool University Press. 
  • Byrne, F.J. (1971). "Tribes and tribalism in Early Ireland". Ériu 22: 128–166. Royal Irish Academy. 
  • Charles Edwards, T.M. (2000). "Early Christian Ireland". Cambridge University Press. 
  • Charles Edwards, T.M. (2006). "The Chronicle of Ireland, Volume 1". Liverpool University Press. 
  • "The excavation of an Early Christian rath with later medieval occupation at Drumadoon, Co. Antrim" (2009). Royal Irish Academy. 
  • "A New History of Ireland, II Medieval Ireland 1169-1534" (2008). Oxford University Press. 
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  • Dobbs, Margaret (1945). "The Dál Fiatach". Ulster Journal of Archaeology 8: 66–79. Ulster Archaeological Society. 
  • Dobbs, Margaret (1939). "The Ui Dercco Céin". Ulster Journal of Archaeology 2: 112–119. Ulster Archaeological Society. 
  • Duffy, Seán (2014). "Brian Boru and the Battle of Clontarf". Gill & Macmillan. 
  • Duffy, Seán (2005). "Medieval Ireland an Encyclopedia". Routledge. 
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  • Maney, Laurance (2002). "Erratum for Volume 20/21 of the "Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium"". Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium 22: 264–269. Department of Celtic Languages & Literatures, Harvard University. 
  • Maney, Laurance (2004–2005). ""I Wonder What the King Is Doing Tonight" Looking for Arthur in All the Wrong Places". Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium 24/25: 54–72. Department of Celtic Languages & Literatures, Harvard University. 
  • McCone, Kim (1984). "Clones and Her Neighbours in the Early Period: Hints from Some Airgialla Saints' Lives". Clogher Record 11 (3): 305–325. Clogher Historical Society. doi:10.2307/27695892. 
  • O'Donovan, John (1864). "The Martyrdom of Donegal. A calendar of the Saints of Ireland". Oxford University Press (2006). 
  • Byrne, Francis John, Irish Kings and High-Kings. Batsford, London, 1973. ISBN 0-7134-5882-8
  • Duffy, Seán (ed.), Atlas of Irish History. Gill & Macmillan, Dublin, 2nd edn, 2000. ISBN 0-7171-3093-2
  • Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí, Early Medieval Ireland: 400–1200. Longman, London, 1995. ISBN 0-582-01565-0

Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. Boyd, Hugh Alexander. Irish Dalriada. The Glynns: Journal of The Glens of Antrim Historical Society. Imleabhar 76 (1978).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Byrne (1971), plch. 154-155.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 3.32 3.33 3.34 Onomasticon Goedelicum - D
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 = 16874 Place Names NI - Glynn
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 = 16386 Place Names NI - Glenravel Water
  6. 6.0 6.1 Flanagan, ll. 98-99.
  7. "Fir-na-craibhe in Dal Araide of the North".
  8. Charles-Edwards (2006), lch. 165.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Dobbs (1945), lch. 78.
  10. Byrne (1964), lch. 58.
  11. Byrne (1971), lch. 165.
  12. Byrne (1964), lch. 85.
  13. Dobbs (1939), ll. 116-117.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 A New History of Ireland, lch. 212.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Bardon, plch. 20-21.
  16. McSparron, lch. 109.
  17. Charles-Edwards (2006), lch. 68.
  18. Maney (2002), lch. 67.
  19. Maney (2004), lch. 265.
  20. 20.0 20.1 A New History of Ireland, lch. 17.
  21. Duffy (2005), lch. 493.
  22. Duffy (2014), ll. 138-139.
  23. 23.00 23.01 23.02 23.03 23.04 23.05 23.06 23.07 23.08 23.09 23.10 23.11 23.12 23.13 23.14 23.15 23.16 23.17 23.18 23.19 23.20 23.21 23.22 23.23 23.24 23.25 23.26 23.27 23.28 Onomasticon Goedelicum - C
  24. Bell, lch. 163.
  25. Bell, lch. 137.
  26. 26.0 26.1 MacCotter, lch. 230.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Onomasticon Goedelicum - S
  28. "Ó Gairbheith". Irish Names and Surnames (1923).
  29. "Ó Haidith". Irish Names and Surnames (1923).
  30. "Ó hAinbheith". Irish Names and Surnames (1923).
  31. "Ó Labhradha". Irish Names and Surnames (1923).
  32. "Ó Leathlobhair". Irish Names and Surnames (1923).
  33. = 16730 Place Names NI - Larne
  34. 34.00 34.01 34.02 34.03 34.04 34.05 34.06 34.07 34.08 34.09 34.10 Onomasticon Goedelicum - L
  35. = 16884 Place Names NI - Island Magee
  36. 36.00 36.01 36.02 36.03 36.04 36.05 36.06 36.07 36.08 36.09 36.10 Onomasticon Goedelicum - M
  37. 37.0 37.1 = 16895 Place Names NI - Magheramorne
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 Onomasticon Goedelicum - T
  39. 39.0 39.1 Charles-Edwards (2000), lch. 63.
  40. = 6371 Place Names NI - Kilroot
  41. 41.0 41.1 = 12014 Place Names NI - Comber
  42. 42.0 42.1 = 16448 Place Names NI - Glore
  43. 43.0 43.1 = 6061 Place Names NI - Glenavy
  44. = 5449 Place Names NI - Duneane Parish
  45. = 5448 Place Names NI - Duneane Manse
  46. = fiodhba Irish Language Dictionary - Fiodhba
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 47.4 47.5 Onomasticon Goedelicum - R
  48. 48.0 48.1 = 18811 Place Names NI - Rashee
  49. U618.3, Coemgin Ghlinne Da Locha & Comhgall episcopus & episcopus Eoghan Ratha Sithe quieuerunt.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 Onomasticon Goedelicum - A
  51. = 15890 Place Names NI - Armoy
  52. = 214 Place Names NI - Coleraine Parish
  53. Charles-Edwards (2000), lch. 59.
  54. = 15234 Place Names NI - Kilkeel
  55. = 15117 Place Names NI - Aughrim, County Down
  56. O'Donovan, lch. 121.
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 Onomasticon Goedelicum - F
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 Onomasticon Goedelicum - O
  59. = 15738 Place Names NI - Knocklayd
  60. Amra of St. Columba
  61. = 342 Place Names NI - Bush
  62. Onomasticon Goedelicum - I
  63. = 5265 Place Names NI - Main
  64. = 16870 Place Names NI - Larne River
  65. = 5659 Place Names NI - Six Mile Water
  66. = 5398 Place Names NI - Toome
  67. = 16927 Place Names NI - Connor Parish
  68. = 16928 Place Names NI - Connor
  69. Onomasticon Goedelicum - G
  70. Onomasticon Goedelicum - U
  71. = 6524 Place Names NI - Belfast Lough
  72. The Metrical Dindshenchas
  73. = 16664 Place Names NI - Slemish


Teimpléad:Ulaidh