Eithne

Ón Vicipéid, an chiclipéid shaor.
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"Cian Finds Balor's Daughter", léaráid le H.R. Millar, c. 1905.

I Miotaseolaíocht na nGael, ba í Eithne (Sean-Ghaeilge Ethniu, Ethliu) iníon Bhalor, ceannaire na bhFomhórach, agus máthair Lugh.

Balor, Cian agus Lugh[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Is léir sna seantéacsanna gur phósadh ríoraíoch é cumann Eithne le hathair Lugh, Cian na dTuath Dé Danann,[1] Caomhnaítear sa bhéaloideas níos deireanaí, ámh, scéal níos, cosúil le breith Perseus i miotaseolaíocht na Gréige.

I scéal béaloidis caomhnaithe ag John O'Donovan in 1835, insítear conas a chuir Balar Eithne faoi ghlas sa Túr Mór ar Oileán Thoraí, as radharc gach fear, ag iarraidh tairngreacht draoi a chosc, go mbásfash a gharmhac é. Ach tháinig fear darbh ainm Mac Cinnfhaelaidh, ag lorg díoltas toisc gur ghoid Balar a bhó draíochta, isteach sa túr le cabhair ón leannán sídhe Biróg, agus luigh sé léi. Rugadh trírín d'Eithne, ach bhailigh Balar i mbraillín iad agus sheol sé amach le giolla iad chun iad a bhá i bpoll súraic. Bádh beirt dóibh, ach thit ceann amháin trí thimpist sa chuan, agus tharrtháil Biróg é. Thóg sí an leanbh ar ais chuig a athair, a thug dá dheartháir, Goibhne an gabha, in altramas. Mharaigh an buachaill Balar agus é fásta.[2]

Agus téacsanna amhail Cath Maige Tuired agus Leabhar Gabhála na hÉireann taobh le taobh, is léir gur Lugh é an bhuachaill anaithnid, agus gur Chian é an t-ionadaí Mac Cinnfhaelaidh.[3][4]

Banseanchas[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Inisítear sa bhanseanchas gurbh é Feada a fíorainm: "Ba é Feada fíorainm Eithne uasal, bean chéile Chiain theann láidir, máthair sárfhir Lú neartmhar, iníon Bhalair bailcbhéimneach[5] mhic Dod mhic Net móréachtach, fear níos mó ná Hector soineanta."[6]

De réir nósanna áirithe, is iníon Delbáeth í, máthair Daghdha agus Oghma, agus bean chéile Nuada Airgeadlámh. I leagan ar leith de bhreith Aonghasa, is bean chéile Elcmar í, a mheall An Daghdha í, agus sa mhéid sin b'fhéidir gurb ionadaí Boann í.[7]

Téacsanna eile[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

I bhformhór na dtéacsanna, is bean í Eithne, ach tá roinnt ann ina bhfuil fear i gceist. Sa tseantéacs Baile in Scáil (Buile an Scáil), deirtear gur mac "Eithleann mac Tigernmas" é Lugh, nó mac "Eithneann mac Smretha mac Tigernmas". Shamhlaigh James Bonwick[8] Tigernmas (an rí a chuir tús le adhradh Chroim Chruaigh) le Balar. Mhol Stewart Macalister gur leagan bunúsach de Ethlenn ab ea Cethlenn, toisc gur samhlaíodh Lugh go minic mar Lug Mac Ethlenn.[9]

Sa seanscéal Altram Tighe Dá Mheadar deir naomh Pádraig faoi Eithne:

I shall leave these virtues for the story of Eithne from the fair Maigue. Success in children, success in foster-sister or brother, to those it may find sleeping with fair women.

If you tell of the fosterage before going in a ship or vessel, you will come safe and prosperous without danger from waves and billows.

If you tell of the fosterage (before going to a) judgment or a hunting, your case will be (propserous), all will be submissive before you.

To tell the story of Eithne when bringing home a stately wife, good the step you have decided on, it will be a success of spouse and children.

Tell the story of noble Ethne before going into a new banqueting house, (you will be) without bitter fight or folly, without the drawing of valiant, pointed weapons.

Tell to a king of many followers the story of Ethne to a musical instrument, he gets no cause to repent it, provided he listen without conversation.

If you tell this story to the captives of Ireland, it will be the same as if were opened their locks and their bonds.[10]

Sanasaíocht[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Is sampla maith é Ethniu den deacracht taighde a dhéanamh ar mhiotaseolaíocht na nGael. Is iad EthliuEthniu na leaganacha is duine dá hainm, fréamh den ainm NuaGhaeilge Eithne. Tharla go leor leaganacha ámh de bharr athruithe teangan agus easpa litriú caighdeánaithe. Tháinig mearbhall ar leith sa cheist de bharr aineolais teanga. In ionad an ainmneach, tógadh go minic foirm an tuisil ghinidigh, mar shampla Ethnenn/Eithneann) nó Ethlenn/Eithleann.

Leaganacha atá san áireamh: Ethnea, Eithliu, Ethlend, Ethnen, Ethlenn, Ethnenn, Ethne, Aithne, Eithnenn, Eithlenn, Eithna, Ethni, Edlend, Edlenn.

Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. Whitley Stokes (eag. agus aistr.), "The Second Battle of Moytura", Revue Celtique 12, 1891, lch. 59
  2. John O'Donovan (eag. agus aistr.), Annala Rioghachta Éireann: Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters Vol. 1, 1856, ll. 18–21, fonóta S
  3. T. W. Rolleston, Myths and Legends of the Celtic Race, 1911, ll. 109–112
  4. Lady Gregory, Gods and Fighting Men, 1094, ll. 27–29
  5. bailc3 ar theanglann FGB
  6. http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/banshenchus.html
  7. James MacKillop, Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, 1998, lch. 155
  8. James Bonwick, Irish Druids and Old Irish Religions, 1894
  9. R. A. Stewart Macalister (eag. agus aistr.), Lebor Gabála Érenn Vol. 4
  10. https://archive.org/stream/celticheritagean00rees#page/18/mode/2up