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Deilbhín i Músaem na Briotáine, Rennes, agus is dócha go léiríonn se Brigit nó Brigantia: c. 2ú haois BCE

Bandia ab ea Brigit, BrídBrig; a chiallaíonn duine ceannasach) [1] de chuid na hÉireann réamh-Chríostaíochta . Breathnaíonn sí i miotaseolaíocht na hÉireann mar bhall den Tuatha Dé Danann , iníon an Dhaghdé agus bean chéile Bres, ar leis a raibh mac dá ngairtear Ruadán.

Mholtaí gur seanainm bhandia Ind-Eorpach na maidine atá anseo atá fós beo é Brigit . [1] Baineann sí le séasúr an earraigh, torthúlacht, leigheas, filíocht agus ealaín an ghaibhneora. Deir Sanas Chormaic , a scríobh manaigh Críostaí sa 10ú haois, gurb é Bríd an "bhandia a d'adhair na filí" agus go raibh dhá dheirfiúr aici: Brigit an cneasaí agus Brigit an gabha. [2] [3] Tugann sé seo le fios go bhféadfadh go raibh sí ina diacht thriarach . [4]

Brigit, Brigid or Bríg ('exalted one')[1] was a goddess of pre-Christian Ireland. She appears in Irish mythology as a member of the Tuatha Dé Danann, the daughter of the Dagda and wife of Bres, with whom she had a son named Ruadán.

It has been suggested that Brigid is a continuation of the Indo-European dawn goddess.[1] She is associated with the spring season, fertility, healing, poetry and smithcraft. Cormac's Glossary, written in the 10th century by Christian monks, says that Brigid was "the goddess whom poets adored" and that she had two sisters: Brigid the healer and Brigid the smith.[5][6] This suggests she may have been a triple deity.[7]

Saint Brigid shares many of the goddess's attributes and her feast day on 1 February was originally a pagan festival (Imbolc) marking the beginning of spring. It has thus been argued that the saint is a Christianization of the goddess.[8]

Clann[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

She is identified in Lebor Gabála Érenn as a daughter of the Dagda and a poet. The same passage mentions that she has two oxen, Fe and Men, that graze on a plain named after them, Femen; elsewhere Fe and Men are described as the two oxen of Dil, "radiant of beauty," which may be a byname for Brigid[9]. She also possessed the king of boars, Torc Triath, and Cirb, king of wethers (sheep), from whom Mag Cirb is named.[10] The animals were said to cry out a warning and thus Brigid is considered the guardian of domesticated animals.[11] As the daughter of an Daghda, she is also the half sister of Cermait, Aengus, Midir agusBodb Derg.

Overview[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

In Cath Maige Tuireadh, Bríg invents keening, a combination of weeping and singing, while mourning for her son Ruadán, after he is slain while fighting for the Fomorians. She is credited in the same passage with inventing a whistle used for night travel.[12]

Brigid is considered the patroness of poetry, smithing, medicine, arts and crafts, cattle and other livestock, sacred wells, serpents (in Scotland) and the arrival of early spring.[13][14] In the Christian era, nineteen nuns at Kildare tended a perpetual flame for the Saint, which is widely believed to be a continuation of a pre-Christian practice of women tending a flame in her honour.[15][16] Her festival day, Imbolc is traditionally a time for weather prognostication:

Thig an nathair as an toll Là donn Brìde, Ged robh trì troighean dhen t-sneachd Air leac an làir. | The serpent will come from the hole On the brown Day of Bríde, Though there should be three feet of snow On the flat surface of the ground.[13]

In her English retellings of Irish myth, Lady Augusta Gregory describes Brigit as "a woman of poetry, and poets worshipped her, for her sway was very great and very noble. And she was a woman of healing along with that, and a woman of smith's work, and it was she first made the whistle for calling one to another through the night."[17]

A possible British and continental counterpart BrigantiaTeimpléad:Citation needed seems to have been the Celtic equivalent of the Roman Minerva and the Greek Athena [18] goddesses with very similar functions and apparently embodying the same concept of elevated state, whether physical or psychological.Teimpléad:Citation needed

She is the goddess of all things perceived to be of relatively high dimensions such as high-rising flames, highlands, hill-forts and upland areas; and of activities and states conceived as psychologically lofty and elevated, such as wisdom, excellence, perfection, high intelligence, poetic eloquence, craftsmanship (especially blacksmithing), healing ability, druidic knowledge and skill in warfare. In the living traditions, whether seen as goddess or saint, she is largely associated with the home and hearth and is a favorite of both Polytheists and Catholics. A number of these associations are attested in Cormac's Glossary.Teimpléad:Citation needed

Brigid agus Naomh Brigid[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

In the Middle Ages, the goddess Brigid was syncretized with the Christian saint of the same name. According to medievalist Pamela Berger, Christian "monks took the ancient figure of the mother goddess and grafted her name and functions onto her Christian counterpart," St. Brigid of Kildare.[8]

St. Brigid is associated with perpetual, sacred flames, such as the one maintained by 19 nuns at her sanctuary in Kildare, Ireland. The sacred flame at Kildare was said by Giraldus Cambrensis and other chroniclers to have been surrounded by a hedge, which no man could cross. Men who attempted to cross the hedge were said to have been cursed to go insane, die or be crippled.[15][16]

The tradition of female priestesses tending sacred, naturally occurring eternal flames is a feature of ancient Indo-European pre-Christian spirituality.Teimpléad:Citation needed Other examples include the Roman goddess Vesta, and other hearth-goddesses, such as Hestia.

Both the goddess and saint are associated with holy wells, at Kildare and many other sites in the Celtic lands. Well dressing, the tying of clooties to the trees next to healing wells, and other methods of petitioning or honoring Brigid still take place in some of the Celtic lands and the diaspora.[19][20]

Féilí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Saint Brigid's feast day is on 1 February celebrated as St Brigid's Day in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and by the Anglican Communion. The Gaelic festival coincides with Imbolc, which is a pagan festival associated with the goddess Brigid.[21]

Neo-Pagan revival[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Brigid is an important figure for modern pagans, who emphasize her triple aspect. She is sometimes worshipped in conjunction with Cernunnos.[22]

Sanasaíocht[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Old Irish Brigit Teimpléad:IPA-sga came to be spelled Briġid and Brighid Teimpléad:IPA-sga by the modern Irish period. Since the spelling reform of 1948, this has been spelled Bríd Teimpléad:IPA-ga. The earlier form gave rise to various forms in the languages of Europe, starting from the Medieval Latin Brigit /ˈbriʒit/, suggested by the written form, and from there to various modern forms, such as English Bridget and Bridgit (now commonly seen as Brigid), French Brigitte, Swedish Birgitta, Italian Brigida and Finnish Piritta.

The name is derived from Proto-Celtic *Brigantī and means "The High One", cognate with the name of the ancient British goddess Brigantia (goddess), the Old High German personal name Burgunt, and the Sanskrit word Bṛhatī (बृहती) "high", an epithet of the Hindu dawn goddess Ushas. The ultimate source is Proto-Indo-European *bʰr̥ǵʰéntih₂ (feminine form of *bʰérǵʰonts, "high"), derived from the root *bʰerǵʰ- ("to rise").[23][24]

Féach freisin[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

External links[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Campbell, Mike Behind the Name. See also Xavier Delamarre, brigantion / brigant-, in Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise (Éditions Errance, 2003) pp. 87–88: "Le nom de la sainte irlandaise Brigit est un adjectif de forme *brigenti… 'l'Eminente'." Delamarre cites E. Campanile, in Langues indo-européennes ("The name of the Irish Saint Brigid is an adjective of the form *brigenti… 'the Eminent'"), edited by Françoise Bader (Paris, 1994), pp. 34–40, that Brigid is a continuation of the Indo-European goddess of the dawn like Aurora.
  2. Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Miotas, Finscéal & Rómánsacha: Craicteagán traidisiún tíre na hÉireann . Prentice Hall Press, 1991. p.60
  3. Wright, Brian. Bríd: Bania, Druidess agus Saint . The Press Press, 2011. lch.26-27
  4. Sjoestedt, Marie-Louise. "Celtic Gods and Heroes": 21, 25. Dover Publications. 
  5. Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Myth, Legend & Romance: An encyclopaedia of the Irish folk tradition. Prentice Hall Press, 1991. p.60
  6. Wright, Brian. Brigid: Goddess, Druidess and Saint. The History Press, 2011. pp.26-27
  7. Sjoestedt, Marie-Louise. "Celtic Gods and Heroes": 21, 25. Dover Publications. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "The Goddess Obscured: Transformation of the Grain Protectress from Goddess to Saint" (1985). Boston: Beacon Press. 
  9. The Metrical Dindsenchas: "Mag Femin, Mag Fera, Mag Fea," Poem 36
  10. Macalister, R. A. Stewart. Lebor Gabála Érenn. Part IV. Irish Texts Society, Dublin, 1941. § VII, First Redaction, ¶ 317.
  11. Ellis, Peter Berresford. "Celtic Women." Wm. B. Erdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids, MI, 1995, p. 28.
  12. Cath Maige Tuired (The Second Battle of Mag Tuired), translated by Elizabeth A. Gray. ¶ 125
  13. 13.0 13.1 Carmichael, Alexander (1900) Carmina Gadelica: Hymns and Incantations, Ortha Nan Gaidheal, Volume I, p. 169 The Sacred Texts Archive
  14. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."". Jones' Celtic Encyclopedia.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  16. 16.0 16.1 Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."" 54, 59.
  17. Gregory, Isabella Augusta (1904). "Gods and fighting men : the story of the Tuatha de Danaan and the Fiana of Ireland": 24. [Lexington, KY]: [publisher not identified]. OCLC 907958219. 
  18. Encyclopædia Britannica: Celtic Religion
  19. Healy, Elizabeth (2002) In Search of Ireland's Holy Wells. Dublin, Wolfhound Press ISBN 0-86327-865-5 pp. 12–19, 27, 56–7, 66, 69, 81.
  20. Logan, Patrick (1980) The Holy Wells of Ireland. Buckinghamshire, Colin Smythe Limited. ISBN 0-86140-046-1. pp. 22–3, 95.
  21. John T. Koch (2006). "Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia". ABC-CLIO. Retrieved on 14 March 2013. 
  22. Magliocco, Sabina (2001-01-28). "Neo-pagan sacred art and altars : making things whole": 30. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. OCLC 46573490. 
  23. Matasović, Ranko, Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series no. 9), Brill, 2009, pp. 78-79
  24. Mallory, J. P. and Adams, Douglas Q. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Taylor & Francis, 1997, p. 269
  25. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".