Liosta ceimiceán a bhíonn ar fáil go coitianta

Ón Vicipéid, an chiclipéid shaor.

Bíonn a lán ceimiceán ar fáil go coitianta i bhfoirm íon. Bíonn cinn eile ar fáil mar imoibrithe - neamhchostasach, foinsí áisiúla ceimiceán a theastaíonn beagán phróiseáil. Tá sé seo áisiúil le haghaidh an cheimiceora amaitéarach agus ghairmiúil araon. San áireamh, bíonn na himoibrithe coitianta seo a leanas;

  • Ocsaídí miotail agus carbónáití (a úsáidtear go forleathan sa photaireacht)
  • Aigéid orgánacha (a úsáidtear le haghaidh na grúdaireachta baile)
  • Tuaslagóirí agus aigéid (a úsáidtear i nglantachán ábhar agus i bhfeidhmeanna crua-earraí eile)
  • Ceimiceán grianghrafadóireachta, mar shampla níotráit airgid
  • Leasacháin ceimiceacha-aonair, cosúil le níotráit photaisiam (a úsáidtear i soláthar talmhaíochta)
  • Gníomhaithe clóiríniúcháin, a macasamhail agus hipeaclóirít chailciam (a úsáidtear i linn snámha agus íonú uisce)
  • Buanaitheoirí, mar shampla déchrómáit potaisiam (a úsáidtear sna healaíona agus sa cheardaíocht)

Is féidir sonraí faoi na comh-ceimiceáin éagsúla i dtáirgí tí, a fháil ar an U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Household Products Index.[1]


Innéacs imoibrí[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Ainm ceimiceach Foirmle cheimiceach Ainm coitianta Foinse agus cur síos
Aigéad aicéiteach CH3COOH + H2O Tuaslagán 5%: Fínéagar bán Siopa grósaera; "Fínéagar Bán" -5% nó "Fínéagar glantacháin" -10%

Siopa soláthair grianghrafadóireachta; "Indicator Stop Bath" -89% (le ruaim chorcora bhrómaicréasóil) nó "Aigéad aicéiteach oighreach" 99.5-100%

Aicéatón CH3COCH3 Aicéatón Go ginearálta; "vearnaisdíobhach ingne"

Siopa lascaine; Oinisc, Cutex. Soláthar bádóireachta; "Glantóir snáithínghloine" Siopa crua-earraí, "Aicéatón"

Cé go nathraíonn comhdhéanamh ó tháirge go táirge, bíonn níos mó aicéatóin de réir toirte ag péintdíobhaigh ná ag gnáth vearnaisdíobhach ingne, agus fiú fós, bíonn níos mó acéatóin sa ghráid tionsclaíoch péintdíobhaigh (in áit grád tomhaltóirí) a úsáideann lucht gairme + díola ar an mórchóir. Díolann roinnt siopaí aicéatón íon chomh maith. [2]

Aicéitilín (gás) C2H2 Eitín Siopa crua-earraí nó soláthar táthúcháin; "Aicéitiléine"

Tré imoibriúcháin idir chairbíd chailciam agus uisce.

Aigéad aicéatalsailicileach C9H8O4 Aspairín Cógaslann; "Aspairín"
Alúmanam Al Alúmanam Go ginearálta; "scragall alúmanaim"

Siopa mínealaíne; " Lí miotalach" alúmanaim púdrach

Siopa soláthair snáithínghloine; alúmanaim púdrach mar mar ábhar líonaigh.

Scagtha as mian alúmanaim, nó Báicsít. Is minic go mbíonn sé brataithe le céir chun inadhainteachta a laghdú.

Hiodrocsaíd alúmanam Al(OH)3 hiodráit alúmana Go ginearálta; "Táibléid frithaigéadacha"—cumaiscthe le hiodrocsaíd mhaignéisiam

Táibléid frithaigéadacha; Alu-cap, Amphojel, Dialume—100%

Siopa mínealaíne: "tiúsóir"

Ocsaíd alúmanaim Al2O3 alumina Soláthraí tionsclaíocha/táthúcháin: "gaineamhroiseadh"—méideanna grádaithe de criostail. Cumasc le haghaidh snasaireachta miotail.

Soláthraí teileascóip; oibreáin líofa le haghaidh comhpháirteanna optúla.

Lapidary supply; cumasc le haghaidh snasaithe carraigeacha.

Sulfáit amóiniam Alúmanam AlNH4(SO4)2 ammonium alum General; "styptic pencils" for shaving

Fine art supply; mordant for dying and painting

Organic/health/Bulk Foods; by name

Photography supply store; darkroom chemical

Sulfáit photaisiam alúmanam KAl(SO4)2 12H2O Alum, sulfáit photaisiam alúmanaim Go coitinne; ceangailteach le haghaidh seicní múcasacha a crapadh

Go ginearálta; "styptic pencil"

Go ginearálta; buanaitheoir le haghaidh ruaimnithe éadaí (RIT brand and others)

Siopa sláinte nádúrtha; "maidín díbholaithe"

Sulfáit alúmanaim Al2(SO4)3 púdar flocasúcháin soláthraí púil; de réir ainm

Go coitinne; frithallasán (ní díbholaíoch) ainm branda "Sparkling Clear"

Amóinia NH3(aq); NH4OH Amóinia, Hiodrocsaíd Amóiniam Siopa grósaera; "Amóinia teaghlaigh"—Hiodrocsaíd Amóiniam—tuaslagán-10%.

Bí cinnte go bhfuil sé marcáilte "trédhearcach" nó "Clear". Má thagann sobal air nuair a critear é, tá gallúnach ann.

Siopa poitigéara; "Amóinia láidir", tuaslagán 27%

Siopa táthúcháin; "Amóinia"—Amóinia ainhidriúil i sorcóirí

Amóiniam décharbónáite (NH4)HCO3 Salann de Hartshorn, Amóinia Baker Comhábhar bácála Lochlannach

Ní mór a choinneáil séalaithe le haghaidh cobhsaíochta.

Amóiniam bifluoride NH4HF2 Ammonium hydrogen fluoride Siopa Crua-earraí; "glantóir babhla leithris", "smálghlantóir meirge"

Soláthar feithicleach; "glantóir cabhail gluaisteáin"

Go ginearálta; eitseáil ghloine (Armour Etch brand)

Bróimíd amóiniam NH4Br Siopa fótagrafaíochta / seomra dorcha; "folcadán tuartha" chun grianghraf a réaladh
Amóiniam carbónáit (NH4)2CO3 Cumharshalann, Salann Hartshorn, Amóinia Baker Siopa grósaera/Cógaslann; "cumharshalann" (Rannóg gharchabhrach)

Comhábhar bácála Lochlannach

'Ní mór a choinneáil séalaithe le haghaidh cobhsaíochta.

Clóiríd amóiniam NH4Cl Flosc sádrála Siopa crua-earraí (pluiméireacht); "Salt of Ammon", "Sal Ammoniac" (flosc sádrála)


38/5000 Soláthraí grianghrafadóireachta; ceimiceán an tseomra dorcha;

Níotráit amóiniam NH4NO3 Ammonium Nitrate Garden supply; "Nitrate of Ammonia" (fertilizer)

Grocery/Pharmacy; single-use cold packs

Amóinia sárshulfáite (NH4)2S2O8 Etching Solution, Ammonium Peroxodisulphate Electronics supply; "circuit board etching solution"
Ammonium phosphate (NH4)3PO4 Fertilizer Garden/Agricultural supply; by name
Sulfáit amóiniam (NH4)2SO4 Garden/Agricultural supply; fertilizer or pH adjuster for soil
Amalós (C6H9O5)n Cornstarch Grocery store; "corn starch"
Antóiciain Extraction from Red Cabbage: Cut, boil, then filter
Argón (gás) Ar Welding supply; by name

General; inert filler gas inside incandescent light bulbs

Aigéad ascorbach C6H8O6 Vitimín C Go ginearálta; "Vitamin C tablets"

B–C[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Ainm ceimiceach Foirmle cheimiceach Ainm coitianta Foinse agus cur síos! Chemical name
Carbónáit bhairiam BaCO3 Difficult to find. Sometimes available from pottery and ceramic supply stores.
Sulfáit bhairiam BaSO4 Lithopone Available from fine art supply houses in a compound with zinc oxide. This compound is known as "Lithipone" pigment. Also available in very pure form from radiology labs and medical supply as a radio contrast agent for x-rays and CAT scans—here it may be scented or even flavoured. May be available from a well-stocked pottery and ceramics supply store.
sárocsaíd bheansóile C14H10O4 sárocsaíd aigéid bheansóigh Tá comhchruinnithe chomh hard le 10% ar fáil sna Stáit Aontaithe ag siopaí drugaí i bhfoirm ungtha le haghaidh cóireála aicne. A greamaigh ina bhfuil sárocsaíd benzoyl 50%, ar fáil ó roinnt siopaí crua-earraí faoin ainm branda "Minwax Ardfheidhmíochta Wood Filler"

Tá taos, ina mbíonn 50% sárocsaíd bheansóile ann, ar fáil i roinnt siopaí crua-earraí faoin ainm branda "Minwax High Performance Wood Filler".

Biosmat Bi Lead-free shot/sinkers Available as a non-toxic lead replacement for bullets, shot, and fishing sinkers. Unfortunately, not as inexpensive as lead. Also, when sold as a lead replacement it is generally alloyed with tin. Note that to make bismuth crystals you will need very pure bismuth metal.
bismuth subsalicylate C7H5BiO4 Pepto-Bismol The active ingredient in Pepto-bismol and Kaopectate.
Aigéad bórachoric H3BO3 Ant/Roach Killer, boracic acid Grocery, drug store, hardware stores; pest control section.
Brómaitíomól gorm C27H28Br2O5S pH Test Aquarium pH test kits often employ bromthymol blue because it changes color in the 6.0–7.6 range.
bútán C4H10 Butane The lighter fluid in hand-held fire starters or cigarette lighters is usually liquid butane. Also available in sporting goods & camping stores as a stove fuel. Many similar fuels use propane, so be sure to read the labeling.
caiféin C8H10N4O2 No-Doz Grocery or drug store. Often in formulation with corn starch as a binder.
suilfíd chaidmiam CdS buí caidmiam Fine art supply house. Available as a yellow powder. Sometimes pure, sometimes blended with zinc sulfide to create alternative hues.
cairbíd chailciam CaC2 Still used by cavers and spelunkers to generate acetylene gas for miner's lamps. May be found through a local caver organization (grotto) or at some non-chain camping/outdoor supply stores.
Carbónáit chailciam CaCO3 Limestone, Carbonate of Lime Chunks: Marble, limestone. Powder: Precipitated chalk.

Builders supply; Chalk, limestone and marble chips.

Drugstore; some antacids are largely calcium carbonate.

Fine art stores; Available as a fine powder used as an extender in paint-making. May be called "Marble Dust" or "Precipitated Chalk".

NBL Blackboard chalk is calcium sulphate, not calcium carbonate.

Clóiríd chailciam CaCl2 Laundry Aid/Road Salt/De-Icer Supermarket, Hardware store; much road salt (de-icer) used to de-ice roads in cold climates.

Also available as a laundry aid; or as a room moisture reducer (desiccant), e.g. "DampRid" and "Dri-Z-Air"

Pool supply; sometimes available as a water hardening agent.

Hiodrocsaíd chailciam Ca(OH)2 Slaked Lime, garden lime Gardening department; used to reduce acidity in soil.

Also used in lime-softening water treatment and in plastering. Can be made from lime or quicklime by adding water to create slaked lime. Can be made by dissolving calcium chloride with sodium hydroxide in water.

Hipeaclóirít chailciam Ca(ClO)2 Bleaching powder and some swimming pool disinfectants contain calcium hypochlorite. Available from cleaning or swimming pool supply companies. Keep in mind that some formulations contain cyanuric acid as a stabilizer against UV light.
calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2·4H2O Norwegian saltpeter Available from garden supply and agricultural supply stores as a fertilizer.
ocsaíd chailciam CaO Lime, Quicklime Builder's supply; used to make plaster. Now difficult to obtain from hardware stores. Can be made by heating calcium carbonate at very high temperatures (> 900 °C). Found in certain Self-heating cans separated from a water compartment, extraction may be inconvenient and is converted to calcium hydroxide after activation.
calcium phosphate, monobasic Ca(H2PO4)2 superphosphate Available as a fertilizer from garden supply stores. Also sometimes available as a nutritional supplement at health food stores.
sulfáit chailciam ainhidriúil CaSO4 Can be made from commonly available plaster of paris by additional heating to above 180C. Also available at fine art supply stores as Terra Alba.
Sulfáit chailciam, heimihiodráit CaSO4·1/2H20 Plaster of Paris Hardware stores, arts and craft stores, and hobby shops.
sulfate dihydrate CaSO4·2H20 Gypsum Can be made from the reaction of Plaster of Paris with Water.
Camfar C10H16O Can be found as a flavor additive at some Chinese grocery stores. Sometimes found in the drugstore as a cream or oral remedy. It feels cool like menthol on the skin.
Carbón C Súiche, Graifít, Graiféin, Nana-fheadáin carbóin, Fullairéiní, Diamant, Gualach Gualach briquettes used in cooking are available at the grocery store but contain a variety of additives. Activated charcoal used in fish tank filters and graphite used in pencil leads are good sources of carbon. Lamp Black artists pigment is pure carbon in a fine powder and is available from fine art supply stores. The anodes in carbon-zinc (heavy-duty) batteries are pure carbon. Coal is not a good source for carbon due to a wide number of impurities and varying grades. Brazing or Gouging rods are available from welding supply stores and are composed of graphite. Graphite is also available as a common lubricant from hardware stores. Other forms of carbon are occasionally available through online retailers selling to element collectors, eBay, engineering suppliers and industrial suppliers. Pure or near-pure carbon can be produced at home through the reaction of Sucrose with Sulfuric Acid or the thermal decomposition of sugars. Diamonds, although prohibitively expensive (except bort or artificial diamonds), can also act as a source of Carbon, such as reducing ocsaídí.
Dé-ocsaíd charbóin CO2 Oighear tirim is available from party stores, supermarkets, refrigeration supply companies and ice cream companies. Nationally distributed by Airgas through "Penguin Brand Dry Ice". Gaseous form available in small canisters at sporting goods stores. Used in air guns and in paintball.
Aigéad carbónach H2CO3 Soda water is simply carbonated water, a dilute solution of carbonic acid. A "Soda Club" home soda maker is a good way to make your own carbonic acid in varying strengths.
Carraigínin Available in some health food stores as a food additive. Used in many commercial food preparations as a thickener and gelling agent. Available at fine art supply stores for use in molding and marbling.
Ceallalós (C6H10O5)n Processed cotton fiber is almost pure cellulose making many undyed clothing articles an excellent source of cellulose. 100% cotton paper is also a good source of this material.
Crómocsaíd Cr2O3 Crómghlas Used as a green pigment for fine art paints. It is available as a powder from most fine art supply stores.

Sold as 'Green Rouge' for polishing metal. Often mixed with paraffin to ease handling. Cheaper grades can contain filler materials.

Aigéad citreach C6H8O7 Sour Salt Available at the grocery store as "Sour Salt". Also used for home soap making and also in photographic development.
Copar Cu Electrical wire, copper pipe, and copper sheeting are available at hardware stores and are almost 100% pure copper. American pennies (minted 1944–1946, 1962–1982) are 95% copper and 5% zinc. Pennies minted after 1982 are only copper clad.
Naiftéináit chopair Cu(C11H10O2)2 Naiftéináit choprach Úsáidtear í mar leasaitheach le haghaidh chrainn leagtha a chosaint ó theirmítí, sheangáin, agus fheithidí uachasacha eile. Bíonn suas le 25% Naiftéináit choprach sna brandaí Wolman agus Jasco, agus sna cuid eile bíonn siad comhdhéanta de ola rois agus tuaslagóirí driogáitpheitriliam-bhunaithe.
Sulfáit chopair (ainhidriúil) CuSO4 cupric sulfate (anhydrous) Available from garden supply or pond supply stores as an algaecide and rootkiller.

NB: blue vitriol is copper sulfate pentahydrate. It can be converted into unhydrated copper sulfate by heating to 150C until it turns pure white.

peintihiodráit sulfáit chopair CuSO45H2O Sulfáit choprach, vitrial gorm, cloch ghorm Siopa crua-earraí; fréamh-scriostóir (Zep Root Kill, Rooto Root Kill)

Gardening, agricultural supply; active ingredient in many algaecides, available for pest control

aigéad cianúrach C3H3N3O3 aigéad isicianúrach Ar fáil ó shiopaí a sholáthraíonn linn snámha agus plásóga, mar cobhsaitheoir clóirín. Díoltar táibléad íonach faoin ainm branda "Kem Tek".

D–G[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Ainm ceimiceach Foirmle cheimiceach Ainm coitianta Foinse agus cur síos! Chemical name
Deastrós C6H12O6 Glúcós, síoróip arbhair Grocery; corn syrup, some throat lozenges are pure dextrose.

Dextrose is right-handed (dextrorotatory) glucose. Levulose is left-handed (levorotatory) glucose. Most products are a half-and-half mix.

Déchlóraimeatán CH2Cl2 déchlóirmeatáin Used as a solvent, degreaser and adhesive remover, it is available from hardware, automotive, and sometimes craft stores. Purity of commercial products can approach 90% with the remainder being composed of alcohols and petroleum distillates. Common brands include "Champion Paint Off", many choke and valve cleaners, and Klean Strip Graffiti Remover.
Sulf-ocsaid démheitile (CH3)2SO DMSO Available from health food and naturopathic supply stores for treating injuries. Warning: DMSO will allow anything it has dissolved to pass directly through your skin into your bloodstream. Use gloves and skin protection when working with this chemical.
Eatánól C2H5OH Everclear Available as 95% pure ethanol and 5% water from liquor stores in most states. Also available in denatured form from hardware stores. Grocery and drug stores may carry it as ethyl rubbing alcohol.
Éitear (C2H5)2O diethyl ether, ethoxyethane Sold at auto supply stores in aerosol cans as "Starter Fluid" or "Cold Start Spray". Used to help start damp or inefficient old engines.
Gliocól eitiléin CH2OHCH2OH 1,2-ethanediol Some engine antifreezes are primarily ethylene glycol and can be obtained at an automotive supply store.
Eoigeanól CH2CH2CH2C6H3(OCH3)OH oil of clove, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol Available at most health food and natural healing stores as clove oil. Note that organically derived oil of clove will have numerous impurities from the distillation process. Synthetic oil of clove is generally pure but more difficult to find.
Aigéad formach CH2O2 methanoic acid Available in some stain removers at the hardware store. A fairly pure 5% concentration can be obtained from the blue chamber of "Clorox Dual Action Toilet Bowl Cleanser".
Fruchtós C6H12O6 Fruit Sugar Easily available from most grocery stores.
Glúcós C6H12O6 Dextrose, corn syrup Grocery; corn syrup. Some throat lozenges are pure dextrose.

Dextrose is right-handed (dextrorotatory) glucose. Levulose is left-handed (levorotatory) glucose. Most products are a half-and-half mix.

Glicrin, Gliocaról C3H8O3 1,2,3-propanetriol Glycerin is an emollient used to soften skin by delaying the evaporation of water. It is available at most drug stores.
Ór Au Gold jewelry is generally not pure gold. Gold is generally alloyed with other metals to increase strength. Gold coins are often .999 fine gold and many may be obtained at "bullion value" from local coin shops. Pure gold dust and gold foils are available from fine art supply stores.
Guma arabach CH4O3S guma acáise Ar fáil ag siopaí ealaíona agus ceardaíochta agus ag siopaí mínealaíne mar cheanglóir i gcomhair do líocha a chasadh ina phéinteanna.

H–K[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Ainm ceimiceach Foirmle cheimiceach Ainm coitianta Foinse agus cur síos! Chemical name
Héiliam He Helium can be obtained from party stores or wherever helium balloons are available. Small disposable containers are available for long-term storage. Containers made by Worthington Industries are 99% pure helium. Note that "balloon gas" is a mixture of helium and normal air.
hexamine C6H12N4 Hexamethylenetetramine Sold as solid fuel tablets in camping and outdoor stores, in combination with 1,3,5-trioxane.
Gás hidrigine H2 Hidrigin Can be generated and captured from electrolysis of water and a wide variety of inorganic chemical reactions. Adding aluminium foil to a solution of Sodium Hydroxide will generate hydrogen gas. Highly flammable and explosive under pressure or in quantity.
Aigéad hidreaclórach HCl Masonry Cleaner, Muriatic acid Hardware store; used in swimming pool maintenance, as masonry cleaner and in silverware cleaner.

Percentages vary but concentrations as high as 35% can be found. Sometimes sold as "Bleaching Water" and many other alternative names.

It can be made by performing electrolysis on salt water with platinum anodes and cathodes, and combining the gases away from sunlight. (Doing this in sunlight is dangerous, as an explosive reaction will occur.)

Aigéad hidreafluarach HF Glass Etching Solution Hardware store; Aluminum brightener & tire cleaner

Fine art supply; for etching glass.

Grocery; under various brand names as a rust remover.

Car dealership; professional grade tire cleaning solutions are typically more concentrated.

Must be stored in polyethylene or Teflon containers. Recommended to keep Calcium gluconate gel on hand in case of an accidental spill. Highly toxic and dangerous

Aigéad hipeaclórúil HClO Laundry Bleach Grocery store.
Hidreacuineon C6H6O2 Photography store catering to the at-home darkroom crowd.
Sárocsaíd hidrigine H2O2 Sárocsaíd Hydrogen peroxide antiseptic (3%)or even (6%) is available from the drug store. Clairoxide hair bleach by Clairol is much more concentrated (12%) and is available from beauty supply stores. Concentrations as high as 35% may be available at health food stores and natural medicine stores as a source of "natural oxygen". Swimming pool and spa suppliers often carry concentrations as high as 27% but these usually contain preservatives/stabilizers. Note: Do not heat. Do not store in metal containers.
Iaidín I2 Iaidín Tincture of iodine, a topical antiseptic used for treating wounds, is a solution of iodine dissolved in ethyl alcohol. It is available at most drug stores. Available from camping stores as crystals for sterilizing water. Crystal Iodine can also be synthesized from Potassium Iodide as radiation pills, utilizing laboratory methods. Certain laboratory methods can be considerably hazardous. Iodine is illicitly used in the production of methamphetamine, making iodine somewhat difficult to obtain. In the United States, it is illegal to sell, purchase, transport, or possess iodine with the knowledge or intention of its use for producing methamphetamine. Small quantities, such as those used in chemistry experiments such as the Briggs–Rauscher reaction, are legal to obtain and require no permits nor record-keeping.[3]
Iarann Fe Steel wool, iron nails, iron bolts, nuts, screws are good sources of iron.
Clóiríd fheireach FeCl3 Etching Solution Available in solution from Radio Shack and other electronics suppliers as an etching solution for circuit boards. Also available in solution from fine art supply stores.
Ocsaíd fheireach (Iron III Oxide) Fe2O3 Rust Common rust. Reddish in color. Can be scraped off of rusted iron objects or purchased in a purified form as the artists pigment "Red Iron Oxide" from fine art supply stores.
ferrous ferric oxide (Iron II III Oxide) Fe3O4 Magnetite Used as the artists pigment "Mars Black" and can be purchased from fine art supply stores.
iron(II) sulfate FeSO4 Sulfáit fheiriúil, Sulfáit iarainn, Copperas Available from garden supply stores as a nutrient. Also available as a mordant for pigments from stores that carry dyeing and textile supplies.
Ceirisín CnH2n+1 (n=12–16) Breosla eitlíochta Lamp oil or kerosene is sold in the paint departments of most hardware stores. Also available in larger quantities from gas stations in many parts of the country.

L–N[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Ainm ceimiceach Foirmle cheimiceach Ainm coitianta Foinse agus cur síos! Chemical name
lactic acid C3H6O3 Aigéad bainne Available from grocery stores and health food stores.
Laitéis C3H6O3 Liquid Latex Body Paint Available from adult toy stores as a novelty item and from select hobby shops. Compositions vary in the amount of ammonia and fillers they contain. Also costume/magic shops, as liquid skin/liquid latex.
Luaidhe Pb Lead shot and lead sinkers are used by fishermen and are available at sporting goods stores, Lead shot is often sold in 25 lb(11.34 kg) bags. They may be alloyed with tin and antimony. Also lead is used for wheel balancing weights at auto garages. Lead sheeting may be obtained from stores that carry roofing supplies.
Ola rois Used as a binder in paints and as a finish for wood. Available at hardware stores and fine art supply stores. "Boiled linseed oil" contains Lead Oxide (boiled with PbO), which speeds hardening (oxidizing) on contact with oxygen.
Litiam Li Lithium can be obtained from Lithium batteries.[4]
Maignéisiam Mg tosaitheoir tine Sold in solid blocks as a fire starter in many camping and outdoor stores. Also used in the construction of metal bodied pencil sharpeners made by the company "KUM" of Germany.
Carbónáit mhaignéisiam MgCO3 Athlete's chalk Often sold as a powder in sporting goods stores for gymnastics, weightlifting, and climbing to help keep hands dry. Sometimes it is combined with calcium carbonate in this use. Available in tablet form as an antacid. Some antacids are pure while others are blended with calcium carbonate.
Hiodrocsaíd mhaignéisiam Mg(OH)2 Milk of Magnesia Milk of Magnesia is an antacid used to settle sour (acidic) stomachs. Some antacid tablets also contain magnesium hydroxide.
Sileacáit mhaignéisiam Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Talc Talcum powder comes from talc, the softest of all minerals, and is used as a dusting powder for babies. It is available in the body care section of the drug store.
Sulfáit mhaignéisiam MgSO47H2O Salann Epsom Drug store; epsom salt is sold as a laxative or as an anti-inflammatory soak. Also available as a chemical for photographic development.
Clóiríd mhaignéisiam MgCl2 Nigari or Lushui Asian markets; Nigari, as it's called in Japan, or Lushui, as it's called in China. Used to make tofu from soy milk.
Dé-ocsaíd mhangainéise MnO2 Pirealúisít Hardware store; available as the black powder in unused alkaline or carbon-zinc batteries. By extensively washing this powder in distilled water you can remove the embedded Zinc Chloride solution.
mearcair Hg airgead beo Becoming difficult to find due to fears of toxicity and environmental contamination. Old mercury switches can be found in many thermostats. Old-style thermometers contain mercury. Fluorescent light tubes contain a small amount of mercury though it can be difficult to extract. Specialty occult stores may carry it as quicksilver. "Ben-Wha" balls at sex toy shops.
Meatán CH4 Gás nádúrtha Gas line in many homes.
Meatánól CH3OH Alcól meitile Methanol is sold as a solvent in paint supply stores under the names "wood alcohol" or "methyl alcohol". Available from automotive supply as a gasoline line anti-freeze.
Céatón meitile eitile CH3COC2H5 MEK Available from most hardware stores as a solvent.
methyl ethyl ketone peroxide C8H16O4 MEKP Available in dilute solution from hardware and boating supply stores as a catalyst for the polymerization of polyester resins.
methyl isobutyl ketone CH3COCH2CH(CH3)2 MIBK Available from many hardware stores as a solvent.
Gorm meitiléine C16H18ClN3S Methidote Methylene blue (Methidote antiseptic) is used to treat small injured fish and is available at pet stores.
Clóiríd meitiléine CH2Cl2 déchlóraimeatán Used as a solvent, degreaser and adhesive remover, it is available from hardware, automotive, and sometimes craft stores. Purity of commercial products can approach 90% with the remainder being composed of alcohols and petroleum distillates. Common brands include "Champion Paint Off", many choke and valve cleaners, and Klean Strip Graffiti Remover.
Salaicioláit mheitile C6H4(OH)COOCH3 Oil of Wintergreen Drug store
Ola mhianrach complex mixture of hydrocarbons Mineral oil is sold in drug stores as an emollient. Some baby oils are essentially mineral oil and fragrance.
Glútamáit mhonasóidiam C5H8NO4Na "味精, MSG" Widely used as a condiment in many parts of Asia. Can be purchased from Chinese or Japanese grocery stores. Also easily acquired in many supermarkets as a "flavor enhancer".
Naftailéin C10H8 moth balls Hardware store, grocery store.

NB: Mothballs may also be made of (para)dichlorobenzene (1,4-dichlorobenzene)

Nicil Ni Pre-1985 Canadian nickels are made of nickel. Note: American "nickels" are composed of 25% nickel and 75% copper. Nickel is often used as a welding filler material, and 1/16–1/8" Ni wire is often available at welding supply stores. "Silver" center of Euro coins is pure Nickel.
Nítrigin N2 Nítrigin leachtach Hospital, laboratory, university, welding supply house, and industrial gas supplier can all provide liquid or gaseous nitrogen.
Ocsaíd nítriúil N2O gás inchoipthe, gás gáire Whipped cream canisters from the grocery store. Or in larger canisters from commercial restaurant supply houses. When packaged for automotive use it is usually contaminated with hydrogen sulfide to discourage inhalation. Industrial (welding supply) Nitrous Oxide contains NO and NO2 (can be removed with moist steel wool)which makes Nitric acid in your lungs so use with good ventilation. (Heating Ammonium Nitrate generates an industrial grade of Nitrous Oxide at the risk of explosion.)

O–P[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Ainm ceimiceach Foirmle cheimiceach Ainm coitianta Foinse agus cur síos! Chemical name
Aigéad ocsalach C2H2O4 easbhainteoir meirge, púdar tuartha neamhchlóiríneach Siopaí grósaera, drugaí, crua-earraí. "Bar Keeper's Friend"

"Prestone Heavy Duty Cooling System Cleaner" may contain up to 98% oxalic acid with handful of trace impurities.

ocsaigin O2 Portable welding oxygen tanks are available at welding shops and some hardware stores. Can be generated in small quantities from the electrolysis of water.
parai-déchlóraibeinséin C6H4Cl2 calóga leamhan, criostail leamhan Siopa Crua-earraí nó grósaera.
pairifín CnH2n+2 (n>19) Unless otherwise labeled, candle wax is made of paraffin. Some grocery stores sell paraffin as a sealant for home canning. Many arts and crafts stores sell paraffin for at-home candle makers. "Vaseline" brand is also paraffin, albeit with molecules that are slightly shorter.
Feanól C6H5OH Phenol can be found in small amounts (~1–2%) in analgesic sore throat spray.
Feanóltailéin C20H14O4 Magic shops might carry it as a pinkish disappearing ink. Blue disappearing ink is not phenolphthalein but thymolphthalein. Difficult to find outside of chemical supply.
dearg feanóil C19H19SO5 phenolsulfonephthalein Used as a pH tester for swimming pools. Available at swimming pool supply stores.
Aigéad fosfarach H3PO4 pH Down Some pH reducers (available at pet stores) used in fish tanks are simply dilute solutions (up to 30%) of phosphoric acid. Also available in gel form at hardware stores as a rust remover. "Naval Jelly" in a spray bottle at hardware stores. Also used as a solder flux.
Polaistiréin roisín teilge (casting resin) Hobby shop
cúr polaistiréin Mountains in Minutes Hobby shop, hardware, or building supply store.
Sulfáit photaisiam alúmanaim KAl(SO4)2·12H2O Alúm, Sulfáit alúmanaim photaisiam It is used as an astringent to shrink mucous membranes. Some styptic pencils use it in their formulation. Often sold as a deodorant stone at natural health stores. Also available as a mordant for clothing dyes (RIT brand and others).
Bróimíd photaisiam KHC4H4O6 Gealtartar Cream of Tartar is available at the grocery store and is used to stabilize delicate foods like meringue toppings and other baked egg-white products.
Carbónáit photaisiam K2CO3 Potais Available at some garden supply and agricultural stores.
Bróimíd photaisiam KBr Photography store catering to the at-home darkroom crowd.
clóiríd photaisiam KCl Leasshalann (Salt substitute) Available as a salt substitute by people who must limit their sodium intake, and is available at most supermarkets. Also available in larger, though slightly less pure, quantities as a road salt de-icer.
Sulfáit photaisiam chróimiam KCr(SO4)2·12H20 Alúm photaisiam chróimiam Photography store catering to the at-home darkroom crowd.
Déchrómáit photaisiam K2Cr2O7 Photography store catering to the at-home darkroom crowd. Also used as a mordant ("Chrome Mordant") for textiles and may be available at a dyeing and fabric store.
Iarann potaisiam (ii) heicsicianaifearáit(iii) KFe[Fe(CN)6] potassium iron ferricyanide, potassium ferroferricyanide Mrs. Stewart's liquid laundry bluing is used to whiten clothes and may be found in the detergents section of the supermarket.
Hiodrocsaíd photaisiam KOH Potais loiscneach Available at some ceramic supply houses and from arts and crafts stores for soap making. Difficult to find. May be the active ingredient in some drain cleaning solutions. Kodak SII Activator is 10% Potassium Hydroxide with various sulfites and bromides in the mixture. Veterinary supply houses may carry it for dissolving hair and horns in animals.
Iaidíd photaisiam KI Piollairí radaíochta Available sometimes as a photographic development chemical. Also from outdoor/survivalist stores in pill form to avoid the uptake of radioactive iodine during a nuclear accident.
potassium metabisulfite K2S3O5 Táibléid Champden Used as a sterilizing agent in winemaking and brewing processes. Sold as tablets which may be pure, blended with sodium metabisulfite, or contain only sodium metabisulfite.
Níotráit photaisiam KNO3 Sailpítear, sailpítear Supermarket; saltpeter or quick salt is used to cure home-made sausages and corned beef. May be available at independent butcher shops.

Agriculture and gardening stores; fertilizer, tree stump remover and root killer.

Sármhanganáit photaisiam KMnO4 Clearwater Clearwater is a solution of approximately 50% potassium permanganate and is used to remove odors and cloudiness from water to be used in aquariums and garden ponds. Also used to treat diseases in fish. Used as ~98% pure powder for treatment of hard well water in water softeners. Potassium Permanganate in a dilute solution form can also be found in certain fish water additive sometimes labelled as "Gill, Fungus, Parasite's Special", One sure way to test is to put some onto your skin and leave it there for a while, then see if there's a brownish coloration/stain. The color of the solution is colored as normal permanganate in solution.
potassium sodium tartrate NaKC4H4O6 * 4H2O Rochelle salt Drug store
Própán C3H8 Gas barbecue fuel is generally made of propane and is available at many gasoline stations or picnic supply stores.
2-própánól CH3CHOHCH3 Alcól cuimilte (alcól cuimilte) Tuaslagán tiubhaithe de 2-própánól agus féadfar is ea alcól cuimilte (alcól iseapróipileach) ar féidir a bheith ar fáil sa chuid is mó de na siopa poitigéara. Coimeádann an tOllmhargadh Safeway an cineál atá 99% íon.

S[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Ainm ceimiceach Foirmle cheimiceach Ainm coitianta Foinse agus cur síos! Chemical name
Cairbíd sileacain SiC Carbaram This hard, abrasive powder is often found sorted by particle size for use in sandblasting and industrial supply houses.
dé-ocsaíd sileacain SiO2 Gaineamh, Silice Quartz sand is relatively pure silicon dioxide and is available at many building supply stores and also aquarium shops. Often found sorted by particle size for use in sandblasting. Micrometre sized particles are used as a filler in rubbers, plastics, and mold making materials and may be available in hobby shops as Min-u-Sil brand.

Available in a porous, amorphous form as the silica desiccant packets found in many sealed food envelopes, electronics boxes, and other packaging. New desiccant packets are often available from local photography stores which cater to the at-home darkroom crowd.

Non-porous amorphous silica is industrially known as Cab-o-Sil. Fairly pure quartz (silica) crystal can be found as one of the rock varieties in many "fill your bag with treasure" stands at tourist-oriented gift shops.Teimpléad:Citation needed

Airgead Ag Older non-clad American dimes, quarters, half dollars and silver dollars are 90% silver and 10% copper. Pure silver coins and bullion can be obtained from local coin shops, often at bullion value.
Aicéatáit shóidiam NaC2H3O2 Téitheoir láimhe Main ingredient in hand-warmers that are available at sporting goods stores. Can also be made through the reaction of baking soda and vinegar.
Bóráit sóidiam Na2B4O710H2O The water can be driven off of grocery store Borax by heating to 200C to create pure sodium borate (although it will begin absorbing atmospheric moisture again when cooled and left in the open).
Décharbónáit sóidiam NaHCO3 Sóid aráin, (Bicarbonate of Soda) Grocery baking section; "single action baking soda"

NB: Baking soda is pure sodium bicarbonate, but baking powder has other ingredients, such as potassium tartrate and sodium monophosphate. Double action baking powder contains single action baking powder, a 'high temperature acid', and corn starch.

disodium phosphate Na2HPO4 pH Down Found at pet stores and used to lower the pH of aquarium water.
Déshulfáit sóidiam NaHSO4 pH Down Pool supply store. Crystal Vanish drain cleaner.
Bróimíd sóidiam NaBr Hot Tub Salt Pool supply store
Carbónáit sóidiam Na2CO3 Washing soda, soda ash Grocery; "Arm & Hammer"

Cloth, art stores; Washing soda is used to treat wool fibers.

Pool supply; used to raise pH (increasing alkalinity) under brand names such as PH Up and PH Plus. Can easily be made by baking Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda) at 350 degrees.

Clóráit sóidiam NaClO3 Available from gardening and agricultural stores. This herbicide is toxic to all green plants and, as such, is becoming less available as more selective herbicides some onto the market. Some brand names are Atlacide, Defol, Drop-Leaf, and Tumbleaf. Read product labeling to deduce the particular purity of any of these brands.
Clóiríd sóidiam NaCl Salann Grocery; Table salt used in cooking is sodium chloride, usually with anti-caking agents such as magnesium carbonate. "Iodized salt" contains traces of sodium iodide.

Uniodized salt is available and is often explicitly labeled as such. Kosher salt, canning or pickling salt, or other large crystal salt is generally more pure.

Water supply; For large quantities, uniodized sodium chloride can be obtained inexpensively from water softener suppliers.

Fluairíd sóidiam NaF Used in toothpastes and mouthwashes to prevent cavities. Difficult to obtain in pure form. Most dental solutions contain a laundry list of inert ingredients to provide coloring, flavor, foaming, and other aesthetic properties.
sodium hexametaphosphate (NaPO3)6 Sodium polymetaphosphate, Calgon water softener This water softener, surfactant and detergent is the primary ingredient in Calgon water softener. It is available at the grocery and hardware store. It is also known by other names including: glassy sodium, Graham's Salt, and hexasodium salt.
Hiodrocsaíd sóidiam NaOH Buac, Sóid loiscneach Grocery, hardware; Known also as caustic soda and lye, sodium hydroxide is used in many commercial drain cleaners/openers.

Ex: Rooto Drain Opener (100% Pure), Drano (not 100% pure), Roebic Crystal Drain Opener

NB: Keep out of eyes

Hipeaclóirít sóidiam NaClO Tuar Household bleach is generally a 5% solution of sodium hypochlorite.
Níotráit sóidiam NaNO3 Sailpítear Sileach Garden supply store
Sóidiam mheiti-dhéshuilfíte Na2S2O5 Campden tablets Used as a sterilizing agent in winemaking and brewing processes. Sold as tablets which may be pure, blended with potassium metabisulfite, or contain only potassium metabisulfite.
Sárcharbónáit sóidiam 2Na2CO3·3H2O2 carbónáit sóidiam A combination of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide in solution, this is often sold as a wood bleach for use on decks and outdoor wood furniture. Available at many hardware and home improvement stores. Sometimes referred to as "oxygenated bleach".
Fosfáit sóidiam Na3PO4 Fosfáit tríshóidiam Fosfáit tríshóidiam, commonly known as TSP, is available at hardware stores and is used to clean walls prior to painting.
Sileacáit sóidiam Na2SiO3, Na2Si3O7 uisceghloine, egg preserver, magic rocks Can be found at some hardware stores and drug stores. Available from ceramic suppliers as a flocculent in clay slip casting. Non-phosphate TSP substitute. Liquid sold with "muffler bandage" at auto stores.
Suilfít sóidiam Na2SO3 Photography store catering to the at-home darkroom crowd.
Suilfáit sóidiam Na2SO4 Photography store catering to the at-home darkroom crowd.
Teitreabóráit sóidiam deacaihiodráite Na2B4O710H2O Bórás Market, drug store; Borax, such as Twenty-Mule-Team Borax Laundry Booster.
Tiasulfáit sóidiam Na2S2O3 Hypo Photographer's hypo is used in photograph development and is available at photography supply stores. Also available from pet shops as a de-chlorination additive to fish water.
Aigéad stéarach C17H35CO2H cruaiteoir coinnle Some arts and crafts stores will carry this item. It is used by do-it-yourself candle makers.
Cruach Fe alloyed with C and depending on type, possibly also Ni, B, V, Cr among others Sreang ghalbhánaithe, nail (fasteners), stainless steel, ball bearings, steel wool Steel, although commonly used in industry and construction, is often unavailable in pure form (other than a few types such of mild steel, galvanised steel, stainless steel and carbon steel that are used for amateur metalworking) to amateur scientists. Otherwise, they will have to make do with galvanised or stainless steel materials such as nails, screws, tools, cutlery, steel wool, ball bearings, steel girders and steel wire. Due to the variety of steel types, carbon content will widely vary and can contain many other elements such as Nickel, Vanadium, Chromium, Silicon, Boron, Zinc, Aluminium, Titanium, Manganese, Tungsten; these alloys all have different names and are sporadically available in different areas and retailers. Steel of various types can also be plated with Zinc or Tin to prevent corrosion or Gold to make it look precious
Siúcrós C12H22O11 Siúcra Grocery; Table sugar is available in large or small bags and in a variety of particle sizes.

It is made from sugar beets and sugarcane.

sulphur S Flowers of sulfur are sold at some garden stores to treat certain plant diseases. Found at most Home Depot stores as "Organic Garden sulfur". Also available at many drug stores.
Aigéad sulfarach H2SO4 vitrial, ola vitril Hardware store; battery acid. May also be obtained at some auto supply stores.

Plumbing supply; buffered solutions available: "Pro Liquid Drain Cleaner"

Pet supply; dilute aqueous solution is used to lower the pH in aquariums.

T–Z[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Ainm ceimiceach Foirmle cheimiceach Ainm coitianta Foinse agus cur síos! Chemical name
aigéad tainneach C76H52O46 tainnin Arts and crafts store in the dyes and fabric section. Some photography stores and drug stores may carry it.
Aigéad tartarach C4H6O6 wine preservative Sold in wine-making supply stores and sometimes in the grocery store.
Teitreaclóireitéin C2Cl4 Teitreaclóireitéin The most common solvent for dry cleaning, it is available in aerosol form from hardware, auto supply, and home improvement stores. Brands like "Lectra Motive Auto Care" and "Gummout Professional Brake Parts Cleaner" contain as much as 99% with methylene chloride as the only major contaminant.
Tíomóltailéin C28H30O4 disappearing ink It is the blue disappearing ink available at magic supply stores.
dé-ocsaíd tiotáiniam TiO2 Bán tíotáiniam Available as a fine powder for use as a pure white pigment from fine art supply stores.
1,1,1 tríchlóireatán CCl3CH3 sreabhán glantacháin, díbhealaitheoir siopa crua-earraí
1,1,1,2 teitreafluaireatán CF3CH2F Most "canned air" products contain this gas under pressure. Read the labels as some contain other solvents.
Tia-úiré CS(NH2)2 Tiacarbaimíd Many silver cleaning products including Hagerty and Tarn-X contain thiourea as the only active ingredient. Other brands may use other active compounds in combination.
[Tolúéin]] C6H5CH3 Meitilbeinséin, caolaitheoir ceallalósach Available from most hardware stores as a solvent.
Tríchlóireitiléin CHClCCl2 Tríchlóireitiléin Available as a fairly pure aerosol from hardware and auto supply stores. Brand names include "Lectra Clean" and "Trouble Free Rust Buster".
Tungsten W The filament in incandescent light bulbs is made of tungsten. Also, small tungsten rods are available at welding supply stores. They are sold as TIG electrodes, and they commonly come in 1/16, 3/32, and 1/8" diameters. Request pure tungsten, as they also come alloyed with 2% Thorium, Lanthanum and other elements. Lead free fishing sinkers are sometimes tungsten.
Tuirpintín Available at hardware stores and fine art supply stores.
Úiré H2NCONH2 ice melter, fertilizer, carbamide Available at some hardware stores and at garden supply stores. "Bonide Azalea" fertilizer is 99% urea.
uisce H2O Distilled (pure) water, is available in most grocery stores. This and "deionized" water are sufficient for most chemical reactions. "Spring water" or "tap water" have numerous minerals in solution. For certain, extremely sensitive experiments, contamination from plasticizers in the bottle may affect your reactions.
Xiléin C8H10 Démheitilbeinséin Available at hardware stores, paint stores, and fine art supply stores.
Sinc Zn Sinc Recent American pennies are 95% zinc with a 5% copper coating Cent (United States coin). Galvanized coating on steel. Inside of carbon-zinc batteries. Found in some hardware stores as "moss strip" for rooftop. The case of carbon-zinc batteries is zinc. "Galvanizing paint" contains powdered Zinc in paint, separate with paint thinner. Pure zinc sacrificial electrodes are available at marine supply stores.
Clóiríd since ZnClf + H2O Tinner's Fluid, "killed acid" Hardware store; used for cleaning copper.

Can be created by dissolving a small amount of zinc in hydrochloric acid.

Ocsaíd since ZnO pompholyx Found in opaque sunscreens for its UV opacity. "Chinese White" fine arts pigment is very pure.
Sulfáit since ZnSO4 Sulfáit since "Moss Killer" for use on roofs and concrete. (Moss killer for grass lawns is Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate.)

Tagairtí[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

  1. Táirgí Tí Innéacs, NIH.gov
  2. http://www.walmart.com/catalog/product.do?product_id=11047134
  3. http://www.justice.gov/ndic/pubs1/1467/index.htm
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ynJrU2sVedQ