Tóraíocht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne

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Scéal Fiannaíochta (Miotaseolaíocht na hÉireann) de chuid na Gaeilge é Tóraíocht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne. Sa scéal meallann Gráinne Diarmaid Uí Dhuibhne trí gheasa a chur air imeacht léi. Téann Fionn Mac Cumhaill sa tóir orthu toisc go raibh Gráinne len é féin a phósadh ag tús an scéil.

Neasa Ní Shéaghdha a bhí mar eagarthóir ar an leagan is mó a léitear sa lá atá inniu ann. Is ann do leaganacha stáitse den scéal.

1: Tóraíocht Dhiarmada agus Gráinne (Meán-Ghaeilge Tóraigheacht) is a prose tale from the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology surviving in many variants, concerning a love triangle between the great warrior Fionn mac Cumhaill, the beautiful princess Gráinne, and her paramour Diarmuid Ua Duibhne. Surviving texts are all in Modern Irish and the earliest dates to the 16th century, but some elements of the material date as far back as the 10th century.[1]

2: Tóraigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne is a popular romance of a love triangle. Although the surviving text of The Pursuit of Díarmait and Gráinne is dated no earlier than the 17th century, there is a reference to this tale in the late 12th-century manuscript Leabhar Laighneach.

An Tóraíocht 1[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Fionn Mac Cumhaill, much older than in his other adventures, had several wives over the years. When his last wife died, his son Oisín and his companions one day asked Fionn when he would remarry. Diorruing suggested that the best woman for Fionn would be Gráinne, daughter of Cormac Mac Airt, the high king of Ireland.

Gráinne thought that she would be marrying Fionn's son Oisín or grandson Oscar, not the aging Fionn himself. Disappointed to find that her fiancé was old enough to be her grandfather, she determined not to marry Fionn, but to run away with one of the champions of the Fianna.

Gráinne administered drugs into the wine of the guests save for Oisín, Oscar, Diarmuid, Caoilte and Diorruing. She approached Oisín, who refused her request, then she approached Diarmaid. Diarmaid also objected to her advances because Fionn was a friend and his leader. Gráinne imposed a geas on Diarmaid that he must follow her. His friends were saddened, knowing that Diarmaid would die if he came between Fionn and his desired wife. Diarmaid left the palace, knowing that despite being a friend and follower of Fionn, his leader would hunt him down for the betrayal.

When Fionn Mac Cumhaill woke, he sent Clan O'Navnan to track down the fleeing couple. Diarmaid and Gráinne crossed Áth Luain, and hid in the Wood of Two Tents. Diarmaid friends Oisín, Oscar, Caoilte and Diorruing were troubled by Fionn's behaviour and determined to secretly help Diarmaid whenever they could.

In the Wood of Two Tents, Diarmaid had erected a fence around him and Gráinne with seven doorways leading to different directions in the wood. Fionn told his followers to surround and capture Diarmaid. Each of them offered to let the lovers through, but Diarmaid refused to allow them to compromise their honour by doing so. Aonghas, as foster-father and protector, wanted to help him, but Diarmaid insisted that he would leave on his own. Aengus took Gráinne away to the Wood of Two Sallows, and Diarmaid escaped by using his spear to vault over the fence and escaped into the wood.

In the centre of the Forest of Dubros were magical berries from the rowan tree that could restore the youth of an old person, guarded by the giant Searbhan on the instructions of the Tuatha Dé Danann. Diarmaid and Gráinne asked Searbhan if they could live and hunt game in the forest. Searbhan agreed on the condition that they would not eat the berries. Gráinne asked to eat the berries. Searbhan refused and attacked Diarmaid with his massive club. Diarmaid used Searbhan's own weapon to kill him.

Fionn gathered the Fianna and travelled to the wood where he had a ficheall board set up, and played his son Oisín. Oscar and Caoilte assisted Oisín in the game, since no one except Diarmuid was a match against Fionn in this game. Diarmaid watched the game from above, and couldn't resist aiding Oisín in the game by tossing berries at the pieces. Fionn lost three straight matches to his son. Fionn realised that the couple were hiding in the tree and ordered men to kill his rival. Diarmaid killed seven warriors named Garbh. Oscar warned that anyone who harmed Diarmaid would face his anger, and escorted the couple safely away through the forest.

Fionn went to the Land of Promise to ask his old nurse Bodhmall to kill Diarmaid. Diarmaid was hunting in the forest beside the An Bhóinn and Bodhmall flew through the air on a flying water-lily and hurled poisoned darts that could penetrate his shield and armour. Diarmaid suffered agony where the darts struck him, but he killed her with the Ga Dearg.

Fionn pardoned Diarmaid after Aonghus Óg interceded on the couple's behalf; Diarmaid and Gráinne lived in peace at Ceis Chorainn in Contae Shligigh for several years. They had five children, four sons and a daughter. Diarmuid built a fort, Ráth Gráinne. However, they went for years without visiting Grainne's father Cormac Mac Airt and Diarmaid former comrades. Gráinne persuaded Diarmaid to invite their friends and relations to a feast, including Fionn and the Fianna. Fionn invited Diarmaid on a boar hunt on the heath of Binn Ghulbain. Diarmuid only took his short sword Beagalltach and his yellow spear, Ga Buí, not his best weapons. He was gored by a giant boar which had already killed a number of men and hounds.

Water drunk from Fionn's hands had the power of healing, but when Fionn gathered water he twice let it run through his fingers before he could bring it to Diarmaid. Threatened by his son Oisín and grandson Oscar he fetched water a third time, but this time he was too late. Diarmaid had died.

After Diarmaid death, Aengus took his body back to the Brugh where he breathed life into it whenever he wished to speak with the hero.[2]

An Tóraíocht 2[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

The story begins with the ageing Fionn, leader of the warrior band the Fianna, grieving over the death of his wife Maigneis. His men find that Gráinne, the daughter of High King Cormac mac Airt, is the worthiest of all women and arrangements are made for their wedding. At their betrothal feast, however, Gráinne is distressed that Fionn is older than her father, and becomes enamored with Fionn's handsome warrior Diarmuid (according to oral versions, this is because of the magical "love spot" on his forehead that makes him irresistible.[1]) She slips a sleeping potion to the rest of the guests and encourages Diarmuid to run away with her. He refuses at first out of loyalty to Fionn, but relents when she threatens him with a geas forcing him to comply. They hide in a forest across the River Shannon, and Fionn immediately pursues them. They evade him several times with the help of other Fianna members and Aengus Óg, Diarmuid's foster father, who conceals Gráinne in his cloak of invisibility while Diarmuid leaps over the pursuers' heads.[1]

Different variants from Ireland and Scotland contain different episodes, sending Diarmuid and Gráinne to all manner of places. Commonly Diarmuid refuses to sleep with Gráinne at first out of respect for Fionn; in one version she teases that water that has splashed up her leg is more adventurous than he is. A similar quip appears in some versions of the Tristan and Iseult legend. Another episode describes how the newly-pregnant Gráinne develops a craving for rowan berries guarded by the one eyed giant Searbhán; though at first friendly to the lovers, Searbhán angrily refuses to give up the berries and Diarmuid must fight him. Searbhán's skill at magic protects him from Diarmuid's mortal weapons, but Diarmuid eventually triumphs by turning the giant's iron club against him.[1]

After many other adventures, Diarmuid's foster father Aengus negotiates peace with Fionn. The lovers settle in Keshcorran, County Sligo where they have five children; in some versions, Fionn marries Gráinne's sister. Eventually Fionn organises a boar hunt near Benbulbin and Diarmuid joins, in spite of a prediction that he will be killed by a boar. Indeed, the creature wounds him mortally as he deals it a fatal blow. Fionn has the power to heal his dying comrade by simply letting him drink water from his hands, but he lets the water slip through his fingers twice. Finally Fionn's grandson Oscar threatens him with violence if he does not help Diarmuid, but when he returns from the well on the third attempt it is too late. Diarmuid has died.[1]

Versions differ as to Gráinne's subsequent actions. In some Aengus takes Diarmuid's body to his home at Brú na Bóinne. In some Gráinne swears her children to avenge their father's death upon Fionn, while in others she grieves until she dies herself. In some she is reconciled with Fionn, and negotiates peace between him and her sons; or goes so far as to marry Fionn at last.[1]

Tionchar[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tóraigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne has often been compared with the earlier love triangle between Deirdre, Naoise agus Conchúr Mac Neasa na nUladh, in Longes mac nUislenn, cuid den Rúraíocht .[3]

The Pursuit of Diarmuid and Gráinne is notable for its similarities to other tales of love triangles in Irish and European literature. It has a number of parallels with the tale of Deirdre in the Ulster Cycle; like Gráinne, Deirdre is intended to marry a much older man, in this case the King of Ulster Conchobar mac Nessa, but she runs away with her young lover Naoise, who is finally killed after a long pursuit. However, earlier versions of Diarmuid and Gráinne may not have been so similar to the Ulster tale; for instance medieval references imply that Gráinne actually married Fionn and divorced him, rather than fleeing before their wedding.[1] Another tale, Scéla Cano meic Gartnáin, includes an episode in which a young wife drugs everyone in her household besides her desired. As in Diarmuid and Gráinne she eventually convinces the reluctant hero to be her lover, with tragic results.[4]

Various scholars have suggested Diarmuid and Gráinne had some influence on the Tristan and Iseult legend, notably Gertrude Schoepperle in 1913.[1][5] That story developed in France during the 12th century, but its setting is in Britain. The hero, Tristan, falls in love with the Irish princess Iseult while escorting her to marry his uncle Mark of Cornwall. They begin their affair behind Mark's back, but after they are discovered their adventures take on more similarities to the Irish story, including an episode in which lovers stay in a secret forest hideout.

In Ireland, many Neolithic stone monuments with flat roofs (such as court cairns, dolmens and wedge-shaped gallery graves) bear the local name "Diarmuid and Gráinne's Bed" (Leaba Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne), being viewed as one of the fugitive couple's campsites for the night.

Cultúr na ndaoine[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

The character Declan tells a version of the tale to Anna in the 2010 film Leap Year. The Irish writer and director Paul Mercier updated the story to Dublin's criminal underworld in his 2002 version. A film called Pursuit, directed by him and adapted from the same script, was released in 2015.

Féach freisin[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Foinsí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 MacKillop, Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, ll. 410–411.
  2. Heaney, Marie (1995). "Over Nine Waves: A Book of Irish Legends". Faber & Faber. .
  3. "The Reader: An Illustrated Monthly Magazine" (1904) 4. Bobbs-Merill Co. 
  4. MacKillop, Dictionary of Irish Mythology, p. 74.
  5. Schoepperle, Tristan and Iseult.