Ba ghrúpa treibheanna iad na Ceiltigh a bhí i gceannas ar chuid mhór den Eoraip roimh theacht chun cinn na Róimhe. Sa tríú haois roimh Chríost ba iad na Ceiltigh a bhí i gceannas, ó Éirinn is ón mBreatain sa tuaisceart, sa Fhrainc is sa Spáinn ó dheas agus chomh fada soir agus na Balcáin is an Tuirc. Níor dream amháin a bhí iontu, áfach, ach grúpaí lena ríthe féin, cé go raibh an teanga is an cultúr céanna acu uile.
Réamhrá[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]
|Ba chóir an t-alt seo a ghlanadh, mar: ag aistriú go Gaeilge
Tar éis an t-alt a ghlanadh, is féidir an teachtaireacht seo a bhaint de. Féach ar Conas Leathanach a Chur in Eagar agus an Lámhleabhar Stíle le tuilleadh eolais a fháil.
The Celts (/[unsupported input]/, see pronunciation of Celt for different usages) are a collection of Indo-European peoples in parts of Europe and Anatolia identified by their use of the Celtic languages and other cultural similarities. Historic Celtic groups included the Gauls, Celtiberians, Gallaecians, Galatians, Britons, Gaels, and their offshoots. The relationship between ethnicity, language and culture in the Celtic world is unclear and controversial. In particular, there is dispute over the ways in which the Iron Age inhabitants of Britain and Ireland should be regarded as Celts.
The history of pre-Celtic Europe and Celtic origins are debated. According to one theory, the proto-Celtic language arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of central Europe, which flourished from around 1200 BC. This theory links the Celts with the Iron Age Hallstatt culture which followed it (c. 800–450 BC), named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria. Therefore, this area of central Europe is sometimes called the "Celtic homeland". It proposes that by the following La Tène cultural period (c. 450 BC onward), named after the La Tène site in Switzerland, Celtic culture had spread westward by diffusion or migration to France and the Low Countries (Gauls), the British Isles (Insular Celts), the Iberian Peninsula (Celtiberians, Gallaecians, Celtici) and northern Italy (Lepontii and Cisalpine Gauls). Another theory suggests that proto-Celtic arose earlier in the Atlantic Bronze Age coastal area and spread eastward. Following the Celtic settlement of Southeast Europe, Celtic culture reached as far east as central Anatolia in modern Turkey.
The earliest undisputed examples of Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions from the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic languages are attested from the 4th century AD in Ogham inscriptions, although they were clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century AD. Elements of Celtic mythology are recorded in early Irish and early Welsh literature. Most written evidence of the early Celts comes from Greco-Roman writers, who often grouped the Celts as barbarian tribes. They followed an ancient Celtic religion overseen by druids.
The Celts were often in conflict with the Romans, such as in the Roman–Gallic wars, the Celtiberian Wars, the conquest of Gaul and conquest of Britain. By the 1st century AD, most Celtic territories had become part of the Roman Empire. By c.500, due to Romanization and the migration of Germanic tribes, Celtic culture had mostly become restricted to Ireland, western and northern Britain, and Brittany. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a reasonably cohesive cultural entity. They had a common linguistic, religious and artistic heritage that distinguished them from surrounding cultures.
Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels (Irish, Scots and Manx) and the Celtic Britons (Welsh, Cornish, and Bretons) of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Britain, Ireland, and other European territories such as Galicia. Today, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, and Breton are still spoken in parts of their former territories, while Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival.
Tréimhsí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]
- Cultúr Hallstatt - idir an 7ú is an 5ú haois RC
- Cultúr La Tène - lár an 5ú haois go dtí an aimsir a chloígh na Rómhánaigh na Ceiltigh
Féach freisin[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]
Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]
- Teimpléad:Harvnb. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic
- Teimpléad:Harvnb. "The Celts, an ancient Indo-European people, reached the apogee of their influence and territorial expansion during the 4th century bc, extending across the length of Europe from Britain to Asia Minor."; Teimpléad:Harvnb. "[T]he Celts, were Indo-Europeans, a fact that explains a certain compatibility between Celtic, Roman, and Germanic mythology."; Teimpléad:Harvnb. "The Celts and Germans were two Indo-European groups whose civilizations had some common characteristics."; Teimpléad:Harvnb. "Celts and Germans were of course derived from the same Indo-European stock."; Teimpléad:Harvnb. "Celt, also spelled Kelt, Latin Celta, plural Celtae, a member of an early Indo-European people who from the 2nd millennium bce to the 1st century bce spread over much of Europe.";
- Teimpléad:Harvnb. "Celts, a name applied by ancient writers to a population group occupying lands mainly north of the Mediterranean region from Galicia in the west to Galatia in the east. (Its application to the Welsh, the Scots, and the Irish is modern.) Their unity is recognizable by common speech and common artistic traditions.
- Teimpléad:Harvnb. "Celts, in its modern usage, is an encompassing term referring to all Celtic-speaking peoples."
- Teimpléad:Harvnb. "Celt, also spelled Kelt, Latin Celta, plural Celtae, a member of an early Indo-European people who from the 2nd millennium bce to the 1st century bce spread over much of Europe. Their tribes and groups eventually ranged from the British Isles and northern Spain to as far east as Transylvania, the Black Sea coasts, and Galatia in Anatolia and were in part absorbed into the Roman Empire as Britons, Gauls, Boii, Galatians, and Celtiberians. Linguistically they survive in the modern Celtic speakers of Ireland, Highland Scotland, the Isle of Man, Wales, and Brittany.
- Koch, John (2005). "Celtic Culture: a historical encyclopedia". Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. “This Encyclopedia is designed for the use of everyone interested in Celtic studies and also for those interested in many related and subsidiary fields, including the individual CELTIC COUNTRIES and their languages, literatures, archaeology, folklore, and mythology. In its chronological scope, the Encyclopedia covers subjects from the HALLSTATT and LA TENE periods of the later pre-Roman Iron Age to the beginning of the 21st century.”
- "PUEBLOS CELTAS Y NO CELTAS DE LA GALICIA ANTIGUA: FUENTES LITERARIAS FRENTE A FUENTES EPIGRÁFICAS" (2006). xxii seminario de lenguas y epigrafía antigua.
- 'If, as is the first criterion of this Encyclopedia, one bases the concept of ‘Celticity’ on language, one can apply the term ‘Celtic’ to ancient Galicia', Koch, John T. (ed.) (2006). "Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia": 790. ABC-CLIO.
- "The Atlantic Celts – Ancient People Or Modern Invention" (1999). University of Wisconsin Press.
- "The Celts: Origins, Myths and Inventions" (2003). Stroud: Tempus Publishing.
- "Britain BC" (2004). Harper Perennial.
- "The Celts" (1970): 28–33. Penguin Books.
- Cunliffe, Barry (1997). "The Ancient Celts": 39–67. Penguin Books.
- Koch, John T (2010). "Celtic from the West Chapter 9: Paradigm Shift? Interpreting Tartessian as Celtic – see map 9.3 The Ancient Celtic Languages c. 440/430 BC – see third map in PDF at URL provided which is essentially the same map". Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK.
- Koch, John T (2010). "Celtic from the West Chapter 9: Paradigm Shift? Interpreting Tartessian as Celtic – see map 9.2 Celtic expansion from Hallstatt/La Tene central Europe – see second map in PDF at URL provided which is essentially the same map". Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK.
- Stifter, David (2008). "Old Celtic Languages": 24–37.
- Cunliffe, Barry (2003). "The Celts – a very short introduction". Oxford University Press.
- Minahan, James (2000). "One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups". Greenwood Publishing Group. “The Cornish are related to the other Celtic peoples of Europe, the Bretons,* Irish,* Scots,* Manx,* Welsh,* and the Galicians* of northwestern Spain”
- Minahan, James (2000). "One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups". Greenwood Publishing Group. “Celts, 257, 278, 523, 533, 555, 643; Bretons, 129–33; Cornish, 178–81; Galicians, 277–80; Irish, 330–37; Manx, 452–55; Scots, 607–12; Welsh”
- McKevitt, Kerry Ann (2006). "Mythologizing Identity and History: a look at the Celtic past of Galicia". E-Keltoi 6: 651–73.
||Is síol é an t-alt seo. Cuir leis, chun cuidiú leis an Vicipéid.
Má tá alt níos forbartha le fáil i dteanga eile, is féidir leat aistriúchán Gaeilge a dhéanamh.