Anton Chekhov

Ón Vicipéid, an chiclipéid shaor.

Gearrscéalaí, drámadóir agus dochtúir leighis ba ea Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (29 Eanáir 1860[1] – 15 Iúil 1904).[2] Bhí sé ar na gearrscéalaithe is mó i stair na litríochta, agus scríobh sé ceithre chlasaiceach drámaíochta.[3] [4][5] Chuaigh Chekhov i mbun scríbhneoireachta chun brabhús a dhéanamh as i dtús báire, ach de réir mar a tháinig feabhas ar a chuid scileanna scríbhneoireachta, ba mhór an tionchar a bhí ar a chuid teicnicí ar fhoirm an ghearrscéil nua-aimseartha.

Bhí sé ina dhochtúir leighis freisin - dúirt sé gurbh é an leigheas "a bhean chéile" agus gurbh í an litríocht a "leannán".[6]

Saol[athraigh | edit source]

Rugadh Chekhov i dTaganrog na Rúise, áit a raibh siopa grósaeireachta ag a athair, Pavel. Yevgeniya an t-ainm a bhí ar a mháithair. Dearbhaíodh Pavel ina fhémheach sa bhliain 1876, agus bhí muintir Chekhov an-bhocht ina dhiaidh sin. Bhí ar Anton Chekhov íoc as a oideachas féin, agus a mhuintir a chothú. Chuidíodh airgead óna chuid scríbhneoireachta go mór leis, agus d'éirigh leis céim leighis a bhaint amach in ollscoil Mhoscó. Tháinig clú agus cáil ar saothar Chekhov agus bhuaigh se duais Pushkin sa bhliain 1887.

Sa bhliain 1892, cheannaigh sé eastát Melikhovo tuairim is daichead míle ó Mhoscó. Is ann a chónaigh sé féin agus a mhuintir go dtí 1899 - sa bhliain sin bhogadar go Yalta. Phós sé Olga Knipper cúpla bliain ina dhiaidh sin. Fuair sé bás den eitinn ar an dara lá de mhí Iúil 1904, agus cuireadh i reilig Novodevichy é.

Tionchar[athraigh | edit source]

Bhi tionchar mór ag Chekhov ar go leor scríbhneoirí eile, leithéidí James Joyce, George Bernard Shaw agus Virginia Woolf. An núalaíocht is mó a fheictear i saothar Chekhov ná sreabh an choimhfheasa, teicníc ar bhain Joyce agus nua-aoisithe eile úsáid aisti ina dhiaidh sin. [7] Tá clu agus cáil ar a ghearrscéalta agus a dhrámaí ar fud an domhain fós.

Íomhánna[athraigh | edit source]

Tagairtí[athraigh | edit source]

  1. 17 Eanáir sa tSeanstíl.
  2. sa tSeanstíl 2 July.
  3. "Russian literature; Anton Chekhov".
  4. "Greatest short story writer who ever lived." Raymond Carver (i réamhrá Rosamund Bartlett in About Love and Other Stories, XX); "Quite probably. the best short-story writer ever." A Chekhov Lexicon, le William Boyd, The Guardian, 3 July 2004.
  5. "Stories… which are among the supreme achievements in prose narrative." Vodka miniatures, belching and angry cats, George Steiner - léirmheas ar The Undiscovered Chekhov, in The Observer, 13 May 2001.
  6. Letter to Alexei Suvorin, 11 September 1888. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  7. "This use of stream-of-consciousness would, in later years, become the basis of Chekhov's innovation in stagecraft; it is also his innovation in fiction." Wood.

Leabharliosta[athraigh | edit source]

  • Allen, David, Performing Chekhov, Routledge (UK), 2001, ISBN 978-0-415-18934-7
  • Bartlett, Rosamund, and Anthony Phillips (translators), Chekhov: A Life in Letters, Penguin Books, 2004, ISBN 978-0-14-044922-8
  • Bartlett, Rosamund, Chekhov: Scenes from a Life, Free Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-7432-3074-2
  • Benedetti, Jean (editor and translator), Dear Writer, Dear Actress: The Love Letters of Olga Knipper and Anton Chekhov, Methuen Publishing Ltd, 1998 edition, ISBN 978-0-413-72390-1
  • Benedetti, Jean, Stanislavski: An Introduction, Methuen Drama, 1989 edition, ISBN 978-0-413-50030-4
  • Chekhov, Anton, About Love and Other Stories, translated by Rosamund Bartlett, Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-19-280260-6
  • Chekhov, Anton, The Undiscovered Chekhov: Fifty New Stories, translated by Peter Constantine, Duck Editions, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7156-3106-5
  • Chekhov, Anton, Easter Week, translated by Michael Henry Heim, engravings by Barry Moser, Shackman Press, 2010
  • Chekhov, Anton, Forty Stories, translated and with an introduction by Robert Payne, New York, Vintage, 1991 edition, ISBN 978-0-679-73375-1
  • Chekhov, Anton, Letters of Anton Chekhov to His Family and Friends with Biographical Sketch, translated by Constance Garnett, Macmillan, 1920. Téacs iomlán ag Gutenberg.
  • Chekhov, Anton, Note-Book of Anton Chekhov, translated by S. S. Koteliansky and Leonard Woolf, B.W. Huebsch, 1921. Téacs iomlán ag Gutenberg.
  • Chekhov, Anton, The Other Chekhov, edited by Okla Elliott and Kyle Minor, with story introductions by Pinckney Benedict, Fred Chappell, Christopher Coake, Paul Crenshaw, Dorothy Gambrell, Steven Gillis, Michelle Herman, Jeff Parker, Benjamin Percy, and David R. Slavitt. New American Press, 2008 edition, ISBN 978-0-9729679-8-3
  • Chekhov, Anton, Seven Short Novels, W.W.Norton & Company, 2003 edition, ISBN 978-0-393-00552-3
  • Finke, Michael C., Chekhov's 'Steppe': A Metapoetic Journey, aiste in Anton Chekhov Rediscovered, ed Savely Senderovich and Munir Sendich, Michigan Russian Language Journal, 1988, ISBN 9999838855
  • Finke, Michael C., Seeing Chekhov: Life and Art, Cornell UP, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8014-4315-2
  • Gerhardie, William, Anton Chekhov, Macdonald, (1923) 1974 edition, ISBN 978-0-356-04609-9
  • Gorky, Maksim, Alexander Kuprin, and I.A. Bunin, Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov, Le fáil ag eldritchpress.
  • Gottlieb, Vera, and Paul Allain (eds), The Cambridge Companion to Chekhov, Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-521-58917-8
  • Jackson, Robert Louis, Dostoevsky in Chekhov's Garden of Eden—'Because of Little Apples', in Dialogues with Dostoevsky, Stanford University Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-8047-2120-2
  • Klawans, Harold L., Chekhov's Lie, 1997, ISBN 1-888799-12-9.
  • Malcolm, Janet, Reading Chekhov, a Critical Journey, Granta Publications, 2004 edition, ISBN 978-1-86207-635-8
  • Miles, Patrick (ed), Chekhov on the British Stage, Cambridge University Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-521-38467-4
  • Nabokov, Vladimir, Anton Chekhov, in Lectures on Russian Literature, Harvest/HBJ Books, [1981] 2002 edition, ISBN 978-0-15-602776-2.
  • Pitcher, Harvey, Chekhov's Leading Lady: Portrait of the Actress Olga Knipper, J Murray, 1979, ISBN 978-0-7195-3681-6
  • Prose, Francine, Learning from Chekhov, in Writers on Writing, ed. Robert Pack and Jay Parini, UPNE, 1991, ISBN 978-0-87451-560-2
  • Rayfield, Donald, Anton Chekhov: A Life, Henry Holt & Co, 1998, ISBN 978-0-8050-5747-8
  • Simmons, Ernest J., Chekhov: A Biography, University of Chicago Press, (1962) 1970 edition, ISBN 978-0-226-75805-3
  • Stanislavski, Constantin, My Life in Art, Methuen Drama, 1980 edition, ISBN 978-0-413-46200-8
  • Styan, John Louis, Modern Drama in Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, 1981, ISBN 978-0-521-29628-1
  • Wood, James, What Chekhov Meant by Life, in The Broken Estate: Essays in Literature and Belief, Pimlico, 2000 edition, ISBN 978-0-7126-6557-5
  • Zeiger, Arthur, The Plays of Anton Chekov, Claxton House, Inc., New York, NY, 1945.
  • Tufarulo,G,M., La Luna è morta e lo specchio infranto. Miti letterari del Novecento, vol.1- G. Laterza, Bari, 2009- ISBN 978-88-8231-491-0.

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