James Watt

Ón Vicipéid, an chiclipéid shaor.
portráid James Watt (1736-1819) ag Carl Frederik von Breda

Innealtóir meicniúil agus aireagóir Albanach ba ea James Watt, FRS, FRSE (19 Eanáir 173625 Lúnasa 1819). Dhear sé inneall gaile a bhí an-tábhachtach sa Réabhlóid Thionsclaíoch i Ríocht na Breataine Móire agus ar fud an domhain.

Dealbh i Leeds.

Saol[athraigh | edit source]

Saolaíodh James Watt ar an 19 Eanáir 1736 sa Ghrianaig (Greenock), i Renfrewshire. Saor bád, úinéir bád agus conraitheoir a bhí ina athair, agus ba é baillie an bhaile é. Agnes Muirhead an t-ainm a bhí ar a mháthair. Preispitéirigh agus Cúnantóirí ba ea iad. Thomas Watt an t-ainm a bhí ar sheanathair James: múinteoir matamaitice agus baillie a bhí ann. Ar dtús fuair James óg an chuid is mó dá oideachas óna mháthair sa bhaile, ach ina dhiaidh sin d'fhreastal sé ar scoil ghramadaí an bhaile.[1] D'éirigh go maith leis sa matamaitic, cé nach raibh mórán suime aige i LaidinSean-Ghréigis.

Phós sé a chol ceathrair Margaret Miller sa bhliain 1764. Saolaíodh cúigear clainne dóibh, ach fuair sí bás sa bhliain 1772. Phós sé Ann McGregor as Glaschú sa bhliain cúig bliana ina dhiaidh sin: cailleadh sa bhliain 1832 í. Bhí Watt féin marbh faoin am sin: fuair sé bás ar an 25 Lúnasa 1819 ina theach, "Heathfield", i Handsworth, Birmingham, Sasana in aois 83 bliain dó.

Inneall gaile[athraigh | edit source]

Dealbh in Chamberlain Square, in aice Birmingham Central Library

An téacht is mó a thuill clú dó ná a inneall gaile nua. Bhí inneall gaile Newcomen ann cheana féin, ach d'fheabhsaigh Watt go mór é. Bhí ról lárnach ag inneall Watt sa Réabhlóid Thionsclaíoch agus mar sin is mór an tionchar a bhí aige ar stair an domhain uile.

Ónóracha agus oidhreacht[athraigh | edit source]

Ba fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh agus Fellow of the Royal Society of London é. Ball den Batavian Society a bhí ann, agus duine den ochtar eachtrannach a bhí ina mbaill den Académie des sciences.

Úsáidtear an téarma watt nó vata in ómós dó.

Scríobh an t-úrscéalaí Sasanach Aldous Huxley (1894-1963); "To us, the moment 8:17 A.M. means something - something very important, if it happens to be the starting time of our daily train. To our ancestors, such an odd eccentric instant was without significance - did not even exist. In inventing the locomotive, Watt and Stephenson were part inventors of time."

Tá dealbh ollmhór le Francis Legatt Chantrey le fáil in St. Paul's Cathedral, ar a bhfuil scríofa:

Dealbh Chantrey
NOT TO PERPETUATE A NAME,
WHICH MUST ENDURE WHILE THE PEACEFUL ARTS FLOURISH,
BUT TO SHOW
THAT MANKIND HAVE LEARNED TO HONOUR THOSE
WHO BEST DESERVE THEIR GRATITUDE,
THE KING,
HIS MINISTERS, AND MANY OF THE NOBLES
AND COMMONERS OF THE REALM
RAISED THIS MONUMENT TO
JAMES WATT
WHO DIRECTING THE FORCE OF AN ORIGINAL GENIUS
EARLY EXERCISED IN PHILOSOPHIC RESEARCH
TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF
THE STEAM-ENGINE
ENLARGED THE RESOURCES OF HIS COUNTRY
INCREASED THE POWER OF MAN
AND ROSE TO AN EMINENT PLACE
AMONG THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS FOLLOWERS OF SCIENCE
AND THE REAL BENEFACTORS OF THE WORLD
BORN AT GREENOCK MDCCXXXVI
DIED AT HEATHFIELD IN STAFFORDSHIRE MDCCCXIX

Ar an 29 Bealtaine 2009, d'fhógair an Bank of England go mbeadh Watt agus Matthew Boulton ar an nóta £50 nua.[2]

Tagairtí[athraigh | edit source]

  1. Tann, Jennifer (2004). "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 
  2. "Steam giants on new £50 banknote".

Leabharliosta[athraigh | edit source]

  • "Some Unpublished Letters of James Watt" in Journal of Institution of Mechanical Engineers (London, 1915).
  • Carnegie, Andrew, James Watt University Press of the Pacific (2001) (Reprinted from the 1913 ed.), ISBN 0-89875-578-6.
  • Dickenson, H. W. (1935). "James Watt: Craftsman and Engineer". Cambridge University Press. 
  • H. W. Dickinson and Hugh Pembroke Vowles James Watt and the Industrial Revolution (published in 1943, new edition 1948 and reprinted in 1949. Also published in Spanish and Portuguese (1944) by the British Council)
  • Hills, Rev. Dr. Richard L., James Watt, Vol 1, His time in Scotland, 1736-1774 (2002); Vol 2, The years of toil, 1775-1785; Vol 3 Triumph through adversity 1785-1819. Landmark Publishing Ltd, ISBN 1-84306-045-0.
  • Hulse David K. (1999). "The early development of the steam engine": 127–152. Leamington Spa, UK: TEE Publishing. 
  • Hulse David K. (2001). "The development of rotary motion by steam power". Leamington, UK: TEE Publishing Ltd.. 
  • Marsden, Ben. Watt's Perfect Engine Columbia University Press (New York, 2002) ISBN 0-231-13172-0.
  • Muirhead, James Patrick (1854). Origin and Progress of the Mechanical Inventions of James Watt. London: John Murray.
  • Muirhead, James Patrick (1858). The Life of James Watt. London: John Murray.
  • Samuel Smiles, Lives of the Engineers, (London, 1861-62, new edition, five volumes, 1905).
  • Schofield, Robert E. (1963). "The Lunar Society, A Social History of Provincial Science and Industry in Eighteenth Century England". Clarendon Press. 
  • Uglow, Jenny (2002). "The Lunar Men". London: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 

Naisc[athraigh | edit source]