Thomas Aikenhead

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Ba mhac léinn Albanach ó Dhún Éideann é Thomas Aikenhead (c. Márta 1676 - 8 Eanáir 1697). [1] a ndearnadh é a ionchúiseamh agus a fhorghníomhú ag aois a 20 ar chúiseamh an diamhasla faoin na hAchtanna in aghaidh diamhasla 1661 agus 1695. Ba é an duine deireanach le bheith curtha chun báis sa Bhreatain Mhór le haghaidh diamhasla. Cuireadh chun báis é 85 bliain i ndiaidh marú Edward Wightman (1612), an duine deireanach le bheith loisceadh ag an stáca i Sasana.

Luathshaol[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Ba mhac James Aikenhead agus a bhean chéile Helen Ramsey é Thomas Aikenhead. Buirgéiseach Dhún Éideann a athair, mar a bhí a sheanathair (darb ainm Thomas Aikenhead freisin). Iníon mhinistir ab ea a mháthair. Baisteadh é an 28 Bealtaine 1676, an ceathrú leanbh agus an chéad mhac den teaghlach. Bhí triúr deirfiúracha níos sine aige (Jonet, Katherine, agus Margaret), ach fuair duine amháin agus b'fhéidir beirt acu bás sular rugadh é.

Díotáil[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Le linn dó a bheith ag staidéar in Ollscoil Dhún Éideann, bhí sé i mbun cainteanna maidir le reiligiún lena chairde agus dá bhrí sin bhí cuntais ó chúigear ar a laghad de na cairde sin mar bhonn díotála ..

Díotáladh Aikenhead i mí na Nollag 1696. Léigh an díotáil:

Go ndearna an príosúnach cothabháil arís agus arís eile, i gcomhrá, go That ... the prisoner had repeatedly maintained, in conversation, that theology was a rhapsody of ill-invented nonsense, patched up partly of the moral doctrines of philosophers, and partly of poetical fictions and extravagant chimeras: That he ridiculed the holy scriptures, calling the Old Testament Ezra's fables, in profane allusion to Esop's Fables; That he railed on Christ, saying, he had learned magick in Egypt, which enabled him to perform those pranks which were called miracles: That he called the New Testament the history of the imposter Christ; That he said Moses was the better artist and the better politician; and he preferred Muhammad to Christ: That the Holy Scriptures were stuffed with such madness, nonsense, and contradictions, that he admired the stupidity of the world in being so long deluded by them: That he rejected the mystery of the Trinity as unworthy of refutation; and scoffed at the incarnation of Christ.

Triail agus pianbhreith[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Rinne an Morair Tagraidh, Sir James Stewart, an cás a ionchúiseamh agus d'éiligh sé go ngearrfaí pionós an bháis ar dhaoine eile a d'fhéadfadh a leithéid de thuairimí a chur in iúl sa todhchaí. An 24 Nollaig 1696 fuair an giúiré Aikenhead ciontach as a bheith ag eascainí agus ag tabhairt amach in aghaidh Dé, ag séanadh an ionchollaithe agus na Tríonóide, agus ag déanamh beag is fiú de na Scrioptúir.

Gearradh pionós an bháis air trí chrochadh. Pionós neamhghnách a bhí anseo, mar nár éiligh an reacht forghníomhú ach amháin ar an tríú ciontú sa chion seo; bhí ar ciontóirí den chéad uair sacéadach agus luaithreach a chaitheamh agus a bheith curtha i bpríosún.

De réir iontráil Aikenhead sa Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography (scríofa ag Andrew Hill): [1]

Aikenhead petitioned the Privy Council to consider his "deplorable circumstances and tender years". Also, he had forgotten to mention that he was also a first time offender. Two ministers and two Privy Councillors pleaded on his behalf, but to no avail. On 7 January, after another petition, the Privy Council ruled that they would not grant a reprieve unless the church interceded for him. The Church of Scotland’s General Assembly, sitting in Edinburgh at the time, urged "vigorous execution" to curb "the abounding of impiety and profanity in this land". Thus Aikenhead’s sentence was confirmed.

Forghníomhú[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Ar maidin an 8 Eanáir 1697, scríobh Aikenhead chuig a chairde ;"it is a principle innate and co-natural to every man to have an insatiable inclination to the truth, and to seek for it as for hid treasure... So I proceeded until the more I thought thereon, the further I was from finding the verity I desired..." " B'fhéidir gur léigh Aikenhead anlitir seo amach taobh amuigh den Dolabhoth, sula ndéanfaidh sé an siúlóid fhada, faoi gharda, go dtí an chroch ar an mbóthar idir Dún Éideann agus Lite . Deirtear go bhfuair sé bás le Bíobla ina láimh aige, ""with all the Marks of a true Penitent". [1]

Dúirt Thomas Babington Macaulay faoi bhás Aikenhead go raibh; "the preachers who were the poor boy's murderers crowded round him at the gallows, and... insulted heaven with prayers more blasphemous than anything he had uttered." Dúirt an tOllamh David S. Nash go raibh forghníomhú Aikenhead ina "a Calvinist providential moment".

Ba é Aikenhead an duine deireanach a crochadh le haghaidh diamhasla sa Bhreatain Mhór. [1] D'fhan diamhasla mar chion caipitiúil in Albain go dtí 1825.

Féach freisin[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  • I Am Thomas, dráma 2016 bunaithe ar Aikenhead
  • Ionchúisíodh John William Gott as diamhasla agus cuireadh i bpríosún é i 1922
  • George Holyoake, a ciontaíodh as diamhasla i léacht phoiblí i 1842
  • Scottish Secular Society#Aikenhead Award

Nótaí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Teimpléad:NoteFoot

Tuilleadh léitheoireachta[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  • Teimpléad:Cite magazine
  • Hunter, Michael (1992). "{{{title}}}": 221–54. 
  • Pringle, Helen. "{{{title}}}". ANU E Press.  (Originated at a conference in 2004)
  • Graham, Michael (2013). "{{{title}}}". 

Naisc sheachtracha[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."". Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography.