Aiméibe

Ón Vicipéid, an chiclipéid shaor.
"Ollaiméibe", Chaos carolinense

Orgánaigh aoncheallacha ina dtarlaíonn próisis iomlána na beatha laistigh de chill amháin. Tá 6,000 speiceas ar domhan ó 2000 milliún bl. ó shin. Cónaíonn siad san ithir, i locháin, san fharraige.  Is cineál cille nó orgánach í ina bhfuil an cumas aici a cruth a athrú, go príomha trí shíneadh agus tharraing a bréagphóidiamaí/bréagchosa.[1] Ní chruthaíonn aiméibí grúpa tacsanomaíoch amháin; ina ionad sin, tá siad ar fáil i ngach mórghinealach d'orgánaigh eocarótacha . Tarlaíonn cealla aiméabóideacha, ní hamháin i measc na protozoa, ach freisin i bhfungais, in algaí, agus in ainmhithe.[2][3][4][5][6]


Cruth, gluaiseacht agus cothú[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Foirmeacha an bhréagphóidiam, ó chlé: polaphóideach agus lóbach; monaphóideach agus lóbach; fílosach; cónúil; mioneangach; achtanaphóidí barrchaolaithe; achtanaphóidí neamh-bharrchaolaithe.

Úsáideann siad bréagphóidiamaí/bréagchosa don ghluaiseacht agus don chothú, a bhfuil ina  boilg de cíteaplasma déanta trí ghníomh comhordaithe de mhicreasnáithíní aictine ag brú amach an scannánphlasmach a timpeallaíonn na cille.[7] De ghnáth, bogann an aiméibe trí  bhréagphóidiam a leathnú amach, agus é a cheangal leis an tsubstráit agus é a líonadh le cíteasol, ansin ag scaoileadh a sciar chúil ón tsubstráit, arb é an toradh go ghluaiseann an t-orgánach ar aghaidh.[8]

Aicmiú[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Cuireann an t-aicmiú is déanaí géinis na na n-aiméibí éagsúla ins na grúpaí seo a leanas:

Foghrúpaí Mórghrúpaí agus géinis Moirfeolaíocht
Amoebozoa
  • Lobosa:
    • Acanthamoeba, Amoeba, Balamuthia, Chaos, Clydonella, Discamoeba, Echinamoeba, Filamoeba, Flabellula, Gephyramoeba, Glaeseria, Hartmannella, Hydramoeba, Korotnevella (Dactylamoeba), Leptomyxa, Lingulamoeba, Mastigina, Mayorella, Metachaos, Neoparamoeba, Paramoeba, Polychaos, Phreatamoeba, Platyamoeba, Protoacanthamoeba, Rhizamoeba, Saccamoeba, Sappinia, Stereomyxa, Thecamoeba, Trichamoeba, Trichosphaerium, Unda, Vannella, Vexillifera
  • Conosa: Endamoeba, Entamoeba, Hyperamoeba, Mastigamoeba, Mastigella, Pelomyxa, Dictyostelium, Physarum
  • Lobose pseudopods (Lobosa): Lobose pseudopods are blunt, and there may be one or several on a cell, which is usually divided into a layer of clear ectoplasm surrounding more granular endoplasm.
Rhizaria
  • Cercozoa:
    • Filosa:
      • Monadofilosa: Gyromitus, Paulinella
      • Granofilosea
      • Chlorarachniophyceae
    • Endomyxa:
      • Proteomyxidea: Vampyrella
      • Gromiidea
  • Foraminifera
  • Radiolaria
  • Filose pseudopods (Filosa): Filose pseudopods are narrow and tapering. The vast majority of filose amoebae, including all those that produce shells, are placed within the Cercozoa together with various flagellates that tend to have amoeboid forms. The naked filose amoebae also includes vampyrellids.
  • Reticulose pseudopods (Endomyxa): Reticulose pseudopods are cytoplasmic strands that branch and merge to form a net. They are found most notably among the Foraminifera, a large group of marine protists that generally produce multi-chambered shells. There are only a few sorts of naked reticulose amoebas, notably the gymnophryids, and their relationships are not certain.
  • Radiolarians are a subgroup of actinopods that are now grouped with rhizarians.
Excavata
  • Heterolobosea:
    • Vahlkampfiidae: Monopylocystis, Naegleria, Neovahlkampfia, Paratetramitus, Paravahlkampfia, Psalteriomonas, Sawyeria, Tetramitus, Vahlkampfia, Willaertia
    • Gruberellidae: Gruberella, Stachyamoeba
  • Parabasalidea: Dientamoeba, Histomonas
  • Other: Rosculus, Acrasis, Heteramoeba, Learamoeba, Stygamoeba, Plaesiobystra,[9] Tulamoeba[9]
  • The Heterolobosea, includes protists that can transform between amoeboid and flagellate forms.
Heterokonta
  • Chrysophyceae: Chrysamoeba, Rhizochrysis
  • Xanthophyceae: Rhizochloris
  • Labyrinthulomycetes
  • The heterokont chrysophyte and xanthophyte algae includes some amoeboid members, the later being poorly studied.[10]
Alveolata
  • Dinoflagellata: Dinamoeba, Pfiesteria
  • Parasite with amoeboid life cycle stages.
Nucleariid
  • Micronuclearia, Nuclearia
  • Nucleariids appear to be close relatives of animals and fungi.
Ungrouped/

unknown

  • Adelphamoeba, Astramoeba, Cashia, Dinamoeba, Flagellipodium, Flamella, Gibbodiscus, Gocevia, Hollandella, Iodamoeba, Malamoeba, Nollandia, Oscillosignum, Paragocevia, Parvamoeba, Pernina, Pontifex, Protonaegleria, Pseudomastigamoeba, Rugipes, Striamoeba, Striolatus, Subulamoeba, Theratromyxa, Trienamoeba, Trimastigamoeba, Vampyrellium, and about 50 other genera[11]

Tagairtí[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Tagairtí[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

  1. Singleton, Paul (2006). "Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 3rd Edition, revised": 32. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. 
  2. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  3. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."". Archived from the original on 10 June 2009.
  4. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  5. Flor-Parra, Ignacio (2013-12-17). "Cell migration and division in amoeboid-like fission yeast". Biology Open 3 (1): 108–115. doi:10.1242/bio.20136783. ISSN 2046-6390. PMID 24357230. 
  6. Friedl, P. (2001-10-01). "Amoeboid leukocyte crawling through extracellular matrix: lessons from the Dictyostelium paradigm of cell movement". Journal of Leukocyte Biology 70 (4): 491–509. ISSN 0741-5400. PMID 11590185. 
  7. Alberts Eds. (2007). "Molecular Biology of the Cell 5th Edition": 1037. New York: Garland Science. 
  8. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."".
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Ultrastructure and Molecular Phylogeny of two Heterolobosean Amoebae, Euplaesiobystra hypersalinica gen. Et sp. Nov. And Tulamoeba peronaphora gen. Et sp. Nov., Isolated from an Extremely Hypersaline Habitat" (2009). Protist 160 (2): 265–283. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2008.10.002. PMID 19121603. 
  10. Ott, Donald W., Carla K. Oldham-Ott, Nataliya Rybalka, and Thomas Friedl. 2015. Xanthophyte, Eustigmatophyte, and Raphidophyte Algae. In: Wehr, J.D., Sheath, R.G., Kociolek, J.P. (Eds.) Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification, 2nd edition. Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp. 483–534, [1].
  11. Patterson, D.J., Simpson, A.G.B. & Rogerson, A., 2000. Amoebae of uncertain affinities. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 804-827, [2].

Naisc sheachtracha[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]