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Amhráin CnaG Coronas, The Academic, 2016

Eipeasóid EIPIC 2016 (2 eip)


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Duasi dara háit Ealaíne 2015 Duais an chéad áit ealaíne 2016

amhráin le Mo Hat Mo Ghneasaí

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Is ceantar i dTuaisceart Bhaile Átha Cliath é (Béarla: ).


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le déanam[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Zyzz, Breaking Bad Revenge The Wire

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ainmneacha i ngaeilge polaiteoirí http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/irish/An_Taoiseach_agus_an_Rialtas/Liosta%C3%AD_Air%C3%AD_agus_Air%C3%AD_St%C3%A1it/

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ospidéal John of Gods, Micheals,


Ailt[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Laimhscríbhinn

sipaí leabhar

Cumainn CLG i mBÁC[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

An Cumann Parnell (Parnells) Naomh Seosamh, BUC (St Josephs OCB) Cluain Tarbh (Clontarf) Naomh Áine (St Anne’s) Naomh Áine (St Anne’s) Naomh Marcas (Marks) Cumann an Chloigthí, Cluain Dolcáin (Round Towers C) Solas na Réaltaí (Starlights) Cuala Naomh Mearnóg

Cumann Ó Duibhir (O’Dwyers) Gaeil na Life (Liffey Gaels) Croí Ró Naofa Raibíní Fhine Gall (Fingal Ravens) Gaeil na Life (Liffey Gaels) Naomh Seosamh, BUC (St Josephs OCB) Naomh Marcas (St Marks)

Naomh Pádraig P (St Patricks P) Naomh Barróg Naomh Uinseann (St Vincents) Naomh Marcas (St Marks)

Craobh Chiaráin Gaeil na Tríonóide (Trinity Gaels) Naomh Sailbheastar (St Sylvesters) Cumann Naomh Peregrine (St Peregrines) Cumann an Chloigthí, Lusca (Round Towers Lusk) Gaeil na Life (Liffey Gaels) Naomh Muire (St Marys) Naomh Mearnóg Baile Buadáin Naomh Éanna (Ballyboden St Endas) An Cumann Parnell (Parnells) Croimghlinn (Crumlin) Cumann an Chloigthí, Cluain Dolcáin (Round Towers C) Naomh Marcas (St Marks) Naomh Uinseann (St Vincents) Fine Ghalláin (Fingallians) Naomh Mearnóg Naomh Mearnóg Éire Nua (New Ireland) Beann Éadair + Naomh Barróg Fine Ghalláin (Fingallians) Naomh Eoin Bhaile an tSaoir (Naomh Eoin Bhaile an tSaoir (Ballinteer St. Johns)) Ciceam Bhaile Munna (Ballymun Kickmans) Ciceam Bhaile Munna (Ballymun Kickmans) Naomh Áine (St Anne’s) Cumann Naomh Peregrine (St Peregrines) Sáirséalaigh Leamhcáin (Sáirséalaigh Leamhcáin (Lucan Sarsfields)) Baile Gháire (Garristown) Naomh Pádraig P (St Patricks P)

An Cumann Parnell (Parnells) Naomh Jude (St Judes) Naomh Monica (St Monicas) Naomh Fionnán, Sord (St Finnians Swords) DLS Bhaile Formaid (Ballyfermot DLS) Clanna Gael Fontenoy Cumann Uí Thuathail (O'Tooles) Gaeil na Tríonóide (Trinity Gaels) Sáirséalaigh Leamhcáin (Lucan Sarsfields) Na Fianna Roibéard Eiméad (Robert Emmets)

Naomh Oilibhéar Pluincéad, Eoghan Ruadh (St Oliver Plunketts ER) Naomh Mairéad (St Margents) Commericials

Inis Fáil (Innisfails) Naomh Barróg Cill Mochuda Na Crócaigh ( Kilmacud Crokes) Baile Buadáin Naomh Éanna (Ballyboden St Endas) Setanta Solas na Réaltaí (Starlights) Fág an Bealach (Faugh's) Gaeil na Tríonóide (Trinity Gaels) Naomh Caoimhín Cillian (St Kevins Killians) Cill Mochuda Na Crócaigh ( Kilmacud Crokes) Naomh Fionnán, Sord (St Finnians Swords)

Craobh Chiaráin An Cumann Parnell (Parnells)

Cumann Báire na Státseirbhíse (Civil Service)

Naomh Marcas (St Marks) Tomás Dáibhís (Thomas Davis) Na Gardaí Oileán na hÉireann (Erins Isle) Tomás Dáibhís (Thomas Davis) Fine Ghalláin (Fingallians) Gaeil Liatroma (Leitrim Gaels) Caisleán Cnucha (Castleknock) Cluain Tarbh (Clontarf)

Craobh Chiaráin Fánaithe Bhaile Baodáin (Wanderers) Oileán na hÉireann (Erins Isle) Fionnbhrú Colmcille (Whitehall Colmcilles) Naomh Muire (St Marys) Naomh Breandáin (St Brendans) Baile Buadáin Naomh Éanna (Ballyboden St Endas)

Na Fianna Naomh Áine (St Anne’s) Cumann Ó Duibhir (O’Dwyers) Na Gardaí Naomh Fionnbarra Tomás Dáibhís (Thomas Davis) Fionnbhrú Colmcille (Whitehall Colmcilles)

Gaeil na Tríonóide (Trinity Gaels) Naomh Seosamh, BUC (St Josephs OCB) Naomh Fionnbarra Naomh Áine (St Anne’s) Cuala Naomh Bríd (St Brigids) Cumann an Chloigthí, Cluain Dolcáin (Round Towers C) Cumann Ó Duibhir (O’Dwyers) Cumann an Chloigthí, Cluain Dolcáin (Round Towers C)

Na Fianna Sáirséalaigh Leamhcáin (Lucan Sarsfields) Gaeil na Tríonóide (Trinity Gaels) Naomh Áine (St Anne’s) Cumann Uí Thuathail (O'Tooles) Cill Mochuda Na Crócaigh (Kilmacud Crokes) Fionnbhrú Colmcille (Whitehall Colmcilles) Naomh Uinseann (St Vincents)+ Cluain Tarbh (Clontarf) Fionnbhrú Colmcille (Whitehall Colmcilles) Naomh Colmcille (St Colmcilles) Fionnbhrú Colmcille (Whitehall Colmcilles) Naomh Marcas (St Marks)

Cumann Naomh Peregrine (St Peregrines) Naomh Oilibhéar Pluincéad, Eoghan Ruadh (St Oliver Plunketts ER)

Cumann Ó Duibhir (O’Dwyers)

Naomh Fionnán, Sord (St Finnians Swords) Naomh Olaf An Cumann Parnell (Parnells) Cumann an Chloigthí, Cluain Dolcáin (Round Towers C) Fine Ghalláin (Fingallians) Tomás Dáibhís (Thomas Davis) Naomh Marcas (St Marks) Cumann Naomh Peregrine (St Peregrines) Naomh Olaf Naomh Caoimhín Cillian (St Kevins Killians) Naomh Pádraig P (St Patricks P) Gaeil Naomh Séamas (St James Gaels) Cumann Naomh Peregrine (St Peregrines) Gaeil na Tríonóide (Trinity Gaels) Gaeil na Life (Liffey Gaels) Gaeil na Tríonóide (Trinity Gaels) Croí Ró Naofa Cumann an Chloigthí, Cluain Dolcáin (Round Towers C) Gaeil na Life (Liffey Gaels) Baile Buadáin Naomh Éanna (Ballyboden St Endas)

Naomh Seosamh, BUC (St Josephs OCB) Naomh Áine (St Anne’s) Cumann an Chloigthí, Cluain Dolcáin (Round Towers C) Gaeil na Tríonóide (Trinity Gaels) Rath Éanna (Raheny) Sáirséalaigh Leamhcáin (Lucan Sarsfields) Naomh Muire (St Marys) 086-8189233 Naomh Uinseann (St Vincents)

Naomh Eoin Bhaile an tSaoir (Ballinteer St. Johns) Naomh Bríd (St Brigids) Naomh Caoimhín Cillian (St Kevins Killians) Oileán na hÉireann (Erins Isle) Rath Éanna (Raheny) Naomh Bríd (St Brigids) Naomh Uinseann Naomh Uinseann (St Vincents) Baile Buadáin Naomh Éanna (Ballyboden St Endas) Naomh Caoimhín Cillian (St Kevins Killians) Teach Mealóg Sráid Singe (Templeogue Synge St) Naomh Pádraig (St Patricks D) Naomh Fionnbarra Sáirséalaigh Leamhcáin (Lucan Sarsfields) Naomh Áine (St Anne’s) Naomh Uinseann (St Vincents) Roibéard Eiméad (Robert Emmets) Naomh Áine (St Anne’s)

Naomh Mearnóg Caisleán Cnucha (Castleknock) Naomh Fionnbarra Gaeil na Tríonóide (Trinity Gaels) Naomh Uinseann (St Vincents) Croí Ró Naofa An Cumann Parnell (Parnells)+ Naomh Seosamh, BUC (St Josephs OCB) Sáirséalaigh Leamhcáin (Lucan Sarsfields) Baile Buadáin Naomh Éanna (Ballyboden St Endas)

Croimghlinn (Crumlin) Croimghlinn (Crumlin)

antab[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

although he initially characterized some of its antibiotic properties, he did not pursue its development.[15][16] In the meantime, another synthetic antibacterial antibiotic Prontosil was developed and manufactured for commercial use by Domagk in 1932.[14] Prontosil, the first commercially available antibacterial antibiotic, was developed by a research team led by Gerhard Domagk (who received the 1939 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his efforts) at the Bayer Laboratories of the IG Farben conglomerate in Germany. Prontosil had a relatively broad effect against Gram-positive cocci but not against enterobacteria. The discovery and development of this first sulfonamide drug opened the era of antibiotics. In 1939, discovery by Rene Dubos of the first naturally derived antibiotic-like substance named gramicidin from B. brevis. It was one of the first commercially manufactured antibiotics in use during World War II to prove highly effective in treating wounds and ulcers.[17] Florey and Chain succeeded in purifying penicillin. The purified antibiotic displayed antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria. It also had low toxicity and could be taken without causing adverse effects. Furthermore, its activity was not inhibited by biological constituents such as pus, unlike the synthetic antibiotic class available at the time, the sulfonamides. The discovery of such a powerful antibiotic was unprecedented. The development of penicillin led to renewed interest in the search for antibiotic compounds with similar capabilities.[18] Because of their discovery of penicillin Ernst Chain, Howard Florey and Alexander Fleming shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine. Florey credited Dubos with pioneering the approach of deliberately, systematically searching for antibacterial compounds. Such a methodology had led to the discovery of gramicidin, which revived Florey's research in penicillin.[17]



Ospideál an Mater Ospidéal Kappa Cnáimhseachas Ortaipéidic


A chairde, an bhféadfadh éinne míniú dom conas go bhféadfainn clár nó rud éigin ar an gcaoi sin a chur le chéile ina bhféadfainn roinnt sonraí a chur isteach ann agus go nginfeadh sé ailt éagsúla dom? Táim ag iarraidh ailt a dhéanamh do bhaill uile na Dála trí ainm páirtí agus áit chónaithe an duine a chur isteahc ann go huathoibreach. Tuairim ag éinne? Mo leithscéal mur bhfuil mórán céile le m'achainí! Eomurchadha 21:48, 12 Meán Fómhair 2011 (UTC)



==========le déanamh[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Teimpléad:Dablink

Acquisition of radiological images[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

The following imaging modalities are used in the field of diagnostic radiology:

Projection (plain) radiography[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Radiographs (or roentgenographs, named after the discoverer of x-rays, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen) are produced by the transmission of x-rays through a patient to a capture device then converted into an image for diagnosis. The original and still common imaging produces silver impregnated films. In Film-Screen radiography an x-ray tube generates a beam of x-rays which is aimed at the patient. The x-rays which pass through the patient are filtered to reduce scatter and noise and then strike an undeveloped film, held tight to a screen of light emitting phosphors in a light-tight cassette. The film is then developed chemically and an image appears on the film. Now replacing Film-Screen radiography is Digital Radiography, DR, in which x-rays strike a plate of sensors which then converts the signals generated into digital information and an image on computer screen. Plain radiography was the only imaging modality available during the first 50 years of radiology. Due to its availability, speed, and lower costs compared to other modalities, radiography is often the first-line test of choice in radiologic diagnosis.

Fluoroscopy[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Príomhalt: Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy and angiography are special applications of X-ray imaging, in which a fluorescent screen and image intensifier tube is connected to a closed-circuit television system.[1]Teimpléad:Rp This allows real-time imaging of structures in motion or augmented with a radiocontrast agent. Radiocontrast agents are administered, often swallowed or injected into the body of the patient, to delineate anatomy and functioning of the blood vessels, the genitourinary system or the gastrointestinal tract. Two radiocontrasts are presently in use. Barium (as BaSO4) may be given orally or rectally for evaluation of the GI tract. Iodine, in multiple proprietary forms, may be given by oral, rectal, intraarterial or intravenous routes. These radiocontrast agents strongly absorb or scatter X-ray radiation, and in conjunction with the real-time imaging allows demonstration of dynamic processes, such as peristalsis in the digestive tract or blood flow in arteries and veins. Iodine contrast may also be concentrated in abnormal areas more or less than in normal tissues and make abnormalities (tumors, cysts, inflammation) more conspicuous. Additionally, in specific circumstances air can be used as a contrast agent for the gastrointestinal system and carbon dioxide can be used as a contrast agent in the venous system; in these cases, the contrast agent attenuates the X-ray radiation less than the surrounding tissues.

Interventional radiology[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Interventional radiology (abbreviated IR or sometimes VIR for vascular and interventional radiology) is a subspecialty of radiology in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance. Some of these procedures are done for purely diagnostic purposes (e.g., angiogram), while others are done for treatment purposes (e.g., angioplasty).

The basic concept behind interventional radiology is to diagnose or treat pathology, with the most minimally invasive technique possible. Interventional radiologists diagnose and treat several disorders including peripheral vascular disease, renal artery stenosis, inferior vena cava filter placement, gastrostomy tube placements, biliary stents and hepatic interventions. Images are used for guidance and the primary instruments used during the procedure are needles and tiny tubes called catheters. The images provide road maps that allow the interventional radiologist to guide these instruments through the body to the areas containing disease. By minimizing the physical trauma to the patient, peripheral interventions can reduce infection rates and recovery time as well as shorten hospital stays. To be a trained interventionalist in the United States, an individual completes a five year residency in Radiology and a two year fellowship in Interventional Radiology.[2]

Computed tomography (CT)[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Íomhá:Brain CT scan.jpg
Image from a CT scan of the brain

CT imaging uses X-rays in conjunction with computing algorithms to image the body.[3] In CT, an X-ray generating tube opposite an X-ray detector (or detectors) in a ring shaped apparatus rotate around a patient producing a computer generated cross-sectional image (tomogram). CT is acquired in the axial plane, while coronal and sagittal images can be rendered by computer reconstruction. Radiocontrast agents are often used with CT for enhanced delineation of anatomy. Although radiographs provide higher spatial resolution, CT can detect more subtle variations in attenuation of X-rays. CT exposes the patient to more ionizing radiation than a radiograph.

Spiral Multi-detector CT uses 8, 16, 64 or more detectors during continuous motion of the patient through the radiation beam to obtain much finer detail images in a shorter exam time. With rapid administration of IV contrast during the CT scan these fine detail images can be reconstructed into 3D images of carotid, cerebral, coronary or other arteries.

CT scanning has become the test of choice in diagnosing some urgent and emergent conditions such as cerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism (clots in the arteries of the lungs), aortic dissection (tearing of the aortic wall), appendicitis, diverticulitis, and obstructing kidney stones. Continuing improvements in CT technology including faster scanning times and improved resolution have dramatically increased the accuracy and usefulness of CT scanning which may partially account for increased use in medical diagnosis.

The first commercially viable CT scanner was invented by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield at EMI Central Research Labs, Great Britain in 1972. EMI owned the distribution rights to The Beatles music and it was their profits which funded the research.[4] Sir Hounsfield and Alan McLeod McCormick shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1979 for the invention of CT scanning. The first CT scanner in North America was installed at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN in 1972.

Ultrasound[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Príomhalt: Ultrasound

Medical ultrasonography uses ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) to visualize soft tissue structures in the body in real time. No ionizing radiation is involved, but the quality of the images obtained using ultrasound is highly dependent on the skill of the person (ultrasonographer) performing the exam and patient body habitus. Larger patients may have a decrease in image quality due to sound wave absorption in the subcutaneous fat layer. This results in less sound wave penetrating to organs and reflecting back to transducer ultimately causing a poorer quality image. Ultrasound is also limited by its inability to image through air (lungs, bowel loops) or bone. The use of ultrasound in medical imaging has developed mostly within the last 30 years. The first ultrasound images were static and two dimensional (2D), but with modern-day ultrasonography 3D reconstructions can be observed in real-time; effectively becoming 4D.

Because ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, unlike radiography, CT scans, and nuclear medicine imaging techniques, it is generally considered safer. For this reason, this modality plays a vital role in obstetrical imaging. Fetal anatomic development can be thoroughly evaluated allowing early diagnosis of many fetal anomalies. Growth can be assessed over time, important in patients with chronic disease or gestation-induced disease, and in multiple gestations (twins, triplets etc.). Color-Flow Doppler Ultrasound measures the severity of peripheral vascular disease and is used by Cardiology for dynamic evaluation of the heart, heart valves and major vessels. Stenosis of the carotid arteries can presage cerebral infarcts (strokes). DVT in the legs can be found via ultrasound before it dislodges and travels to the lungs (pulmonary embolism), which can be fatal if left untreated. Ultrasound is useful for image-guided interventions like biopsies and drainages such as thoracentesis). Small portable ultrasound devices now replace peritoneal lavage in the triage of trauma victims by directly assessing for the presence of hemorrhage in the peritoneum and the integrity of the major viscera including the liver, spleen and kidneys. Extensive hemoperitoneum (bleeding inside the body cavity) or injury to the major organs may require emergent surgical exploration and repair.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Íomhá ó thástáil MRI den ghlúin le plaitín glúine atá as alt

MRI uses strong magnetic fields to align atomic nuclei (usually hydrogen protons) within body tissues, then uses a radio signal to disturb the axis of rotation of these nuclei and observes the radio frequency signal generated as the nuclei return to their baseline states. The radio signals are collected by small antennae, called coils, placed near the area of interest. An advantage of MRI is its ability to produce images in axial, coronal, sagittal and multiple oblique planes with equal ease. MRI scans give the best soft tissue contrast of all the imaging modalities. With advances in scanning speed and spatial resolution, and improvements in computer 3D algorithms and hardware, MRI has become an important tool in musculoskeletal radiology and neuroradiology.

One disadvantage is that the patient has to hold still for long periods of time in a noisy, cramped space while the imaging is performed. Claustrophobia severe enough to terminate the MRI exam is reported in up to 5% of patients. Recent improvements in magnet design including stronger magnetic fields (3 teslas), shortening exam times, wider, shorter magnet bores and more open magnet designs, have brought some relief for claustrophobic patients. However, in magnets of equal field strength there is often a trade-off between image quality and open design. MRI has great benefit in imaging the brain, spine, and musculoskeletal system. The modality is currently contraindicated for patients with pacemakers, cochlear implants, some indwelling medication pumps, certain types of cerebral aneurysm clips, metal fragments in the eyes and some metallic hardware due to the powerful magnetic fields and strong fluctuating radio signals the body is exposed to. Areas of potential advancement include functional imaging, cardiovascular MRI, as well as MR image guided therapy.

Nuclear medicine[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Príomhalt: Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine imaging involves the administration into the patient of radiopharmaceuticals consisting of substances with affinity for certain body tissues labeled with radioactive tracer. The most commonly used tracers are Technetium-99m, Iodine-123, Iodine-131, Gallium-67, Indium-111, Thallium-201 and 18F-FDG. The heart, lungs, thyroid, liver, gallbladder, and bones are commonly evaluated for particular conditions using these techniques. While anatomical detail is limited in these studies, nuclear medicine is useful in displaying physiological function. The excretory function of the kidneys, iodine concentrating ability of the thyroid, blood flow to heart muscle, etc. can be measured. The principal imaging device is the gamma camera which detects the radiation emitted by the tracer in the body and displays it as an image. With computer processing, the information can be displayed as axial, coronal and sagittal images (SPECT images, single-photon emission computed tomography). In the most modern devices Nuclear Medicine images can be fused with a CT scan taken quasi-simultaneously so that the physiological information can be overlaid or co-registered with the anatomical structures to improve diagnostic accuracy.

Positron emission tomography (PET), scanning is a nuclear medicine procedure that deals with positrons. The positrons annihilate to produce two opposite traveling gamma rays to be detected coincidentally, thus improving resolution. In PET scanning, a radioactive, biologically active substance, most often Fludeoxyglucose (18F), is injected into a patient and the radiation emitted by the patient is detected to produce multi-planar images of the body. Metabolically more active tissues, such as cancer, concentrate the active substance more than normal tissues. PET images can be combined (or "fused") with an anatomic imaging study (currently generally CT images), to more accurately localize PET findings and thereby improve diagnostic accuracy.

The fusion technology has gone further to combine PET and MRI similar to PET and CT. PET/MRI fusion, largely practiced in academic and research settings, could potentially play a crucial role in fine detail of brain imaging, breast cancer screening and small joint imaging of foot. The technology recently blossomed following passing a technical hurdle of altered positron movement in strong magnetic field thus affecting the resolution of PET images and attenuation correction.

  .

Teleradiology[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Príomhalt: Teleradiology

Teleradiology is the transmission of radiographic images from one location to another for interpretation by a radiologist. It is most often used to allow rapid interpretation of emergency room, ICU and other emergent examinations after hours of usual operation, at night and on weekends. In these cases the images are often sent across time zones (i.e. to Spain, Australia, India) with the receiving radiologist working his normal daylight hours. Teleradiology can also be use to obtain consultation with an expert or sub-specialist about a complicated or puzzling case.

Teleradiology requires a sending station, high speed Internet connection and high quality receiving station. At the transmission station, plain radiographs are passed through a digitizing machine before transmission, while CT scans, MRIs, Ultrasounds and Nuclear Medicine scans can be sent directly as they are already a stream of digital data. The computer at the receiving end will need to have a high-quality display screen that has been tested and cleared for clinical purposes. Reports are then transmitted to the requesting physician.

The major advantage of teleradiology is the ability to use different time zones to provide real-time emergency radiology services around-the-clock. The disadvantages include higher costs, limited contact between the ordering physician and the radiologist, and the inability to cover for procedures requiring an onsite radiologist. Laws and regulations concerning the use of teleradiology vary among the states, with some states requiring a license to practice medicine in the state sending the radiologic exam. Some states require the teleradiology report to be preliminary with the official report issued by a hospital staff radiologist.

Radiologist training[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

United States[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Radiology is an expanding field in medicine. Applying for residency positions in radiology has become increasingly competitive. Applicants are often near the top of their medical school class, with high USMLE (board) scores. The field is rapidly expanding due to advances in computer technology, which is closely linked to modern imaging. Diagnostic radiologists must complete prerequisite undergraduate education, 4 years of medical school, one year of internship, and 4 years of residency training.[5] After residency, radiologists often pursue one or two years of additional specialty fellowship training.

The radiology resident must pass a medical physics board exam during training covering the science, technology and radiobiology of ultrasound, CTs, x-rays, nuclear medicine and MRI. Near the completion of residency, the radiologist in training may be deemed eligible to "sit for the Boards", take the written and oral board examinations administered by the American Board of Radiology (ABR). Certification may also be obtained from the American Osteopathic Board of Radiology (AOBR) and the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS). Starting in 2010, the ABR's oral board examination structure will be changed to include two computer-based exams, one given after the third year of residency training, and the second given 18 months after the first oral exam. To complete the oral section of the ABR certification, a radiologist must pass each of the eleven sections. An applicant who passes fewer than eight sections has failed and must re-take the entire exam. An applicant who passes at least eight of the eleven sections of the ABR oral boards is considered "conditioned" and can retake the last three or fewer sections again at a later date to become ABR certified. Once successful in passing all sections, the physician then becomes a diplomate of the American Board of Radiology.

Following completion of residency training, radiologists may either begin practicing or enter into sub-specialty training programs known as fellowships. Examples of sub-speciality training in radiology include abdominal imaging, thoracic imaging, cross sectional/ultrasound, MRI, musculoskeletal imaging, interventional radiology, neuroradiology, interventional neuroradiology, paediatric radiology, nuclear medicine, emergency radiology, breast imaging and women's imaging. Fellowship training programs in radiology are usually 1 or 2 years in length.[6]

Several medical schools in the US have started to incorporate radiology education into their core MD training. New York Medical College, The Wayne State University School of Medicine, the Uniformed Services University, and the University of South Carolina School of Medicine offer integrated radiology curriculum during their respective MD Programs.[7][8][9][10]

Radiographic exams are usually performed by radiologic technologists, (also known as diagnostic radiographers) who in the United States have a 2-year Associates Degree or 4 year Bachelors of Science Degree and, in the UK, a 3 year Honours Degree.

Veterinary radiologists are veterinarians that specialize in the use of X-rays, ultrasound, MRI and nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging or treatment of disease in animals. They are certified in either diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology by the American College of Veterinary Radiology.

United Kingdom[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Radiology is a competitive speciality in the UK, attracting applicants from a broad range of backgrounds. Traditionally applications were accepted only from doctors who had completed higher training in specialities such as surgery, or general medicine. They were usually required to sit a professional exam such as the MRCS before they were considered for radiology training. Today applicants are welcomed direct from the Foundation Programme as well as those who have completed higher training. Completion of professional exams is no longer a pre-requisite for application.

The training programme lasts for a total of 5 years. During this time doctors will rotate into different sub-specialities such as paediatrics, neuro-radiology, and breast imaging. During the first year of training, radiology trainees are expected to sit the first part of the FRCR exam. This comprises of a medical physics and anatomy examination. Following completion of their part 1 exam, they are then required to sit 6 written exams which cover all the sub-specialities. Successful completion of these allows them to complete the FRCR by sitting the part 2B which includes rapid reporting, and a long case discussion.

After achieving a Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT) many fellowship posts exist in specialities such as neuro intervention, and vascular intervention which would allow the doctor to work as an interventional radiologist. In some cases the CCT date can be deferred by a year to include these fellowship programmes.

There is currently a shortage of radiologists in the UK. Opportunities exist in all specialities, and with the increased reliance on imaging, demand is set to increase for years to come.

Germany[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

After obtaining medical licensure, German radiologists complete a 5-year residency, culminating with a board examination (known as Facharztprüfung).

Italy[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Until 2008, a Radiology training program had a duration of four years. At present, a radiology training program lasts five years. Further training is required for specialization in radiotherapy or nuclear medicine.

See also[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

References[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

  1. Novelline, Robert. Squire's Fundamentals of Radiology. Harvard University Press. 5th edition. 1997. ISBN 0-674-83339-2.
  2. Society of Interventional Radiology -- Global Statement Defining Interventional radiology. http://www.sirweb.org/news/newsPDF/IR_Global_Statement.pdf
  3. Herman, G. T., Fundamentals of computerized tomography: Image reconstruction from projection, 2nd edition, Springer, 2009
  4. "The History, Development and Impact of Computed Imaging in Neurological Diagnosis and Neurosurgery: CT, MRI, and DTI" (2010). Internet Journal of Neurosurgery 7 (1). 
  5. http://www.scrubnotes.com/2008/12/how-to-become-radiologist.html
  6. http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/radiology/educ-opps/fellowships.cfm
  7. http://www.nymc.edu/Academics/SchoolOfMedicine/UndergraduateMedicalEducation/FourthYearCurriculum/index.html
  8. http://www.gehealthcare.com/usen/ultrasound/genimg/products/logiq_e/hryfrdhosp_waynestuni.html
  9. http://www.springerimages.com/Images/MedicineAndPublicHealth/1-10.1007_s13089-011-0052-9-0
  10. http://www.jultrasoundmed.org/cgi/content/abstract/27/5/745

External links[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Teimpléad:Medicine Teimpléad:Medical imaging

tinnis[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

an bhruitíneach; an triuch; an déideadh; an bholgach; na creatha


TDs by constituency[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

The list is given in alphabetical order by constituency. Teimpléad:Dáil Éireann Members Begin |- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="5" | Carlow–Kilkenny | Pat Deering ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Phil Hogan ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | John McGuinness ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Ann Phelan ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | John Paul Phelan ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="5" | Cavan–Monaghan | Seán Conlan ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Heather Humphreys ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Caoimhghín Ó Caoláin ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |- | Joe O'Reilly ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Brendan Smith ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Clare | Pat Breen ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Joe Carey ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Timmy Dooley ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Michael McNamara ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Cork East | Tom Barry ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Sandra McLellan ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |- | Seán Sherlock ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | David Stanton ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Cork North–Central | Billy Kelleher ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Kathleen Lynch ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Dara Murphy ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Jonathan O'Brien ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Cork North–West | Áine Collins ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Michael Creed ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Michael Moynihan ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="5" | Cork South–Central | Jerry Buttimer ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Simon Coveney ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Ciarán Lynch ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Micheál Martin ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Michael McGrath ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Cork South–West | Jim Daly ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Noel Harrington ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Michael McCarthy ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Donegal North–East | Charlie McConalogue ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Joe McHugh ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Pádraig Mac Lochlainn ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Donegal South–West | Pearse Doherty ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |- | Dinny McGinley ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Thomas Pringle ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Dublin Central | Joe Costello ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Paschal Donohoe ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Mary Lou McDonald ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |- | Maureen O'Sullivan ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Dublin Mid–West | Robert Dowds ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Frances Fitzgerald ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Derek Keating ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Joanna Tuffy ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Dublin North | Clare Daly ! style="background-color: #FF3300; width: 1px;" | | [[Socialist Party (Ireland) | Teimpléad:Socialist Party (Ireland)/meta/shortname]] |- | Alan Farrell ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | James Reilly ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Brendan Ryan ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Dublin North–Central | Richard Bruton ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Finian McGrath ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |- | Aodhán Ó Ríordáin ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Dublin North–East | Tommy Broughan ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Terence Flanagan ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Seán Kenny ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Dublin North–West | Dessie Ellis ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |- | John Lyons ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Róisín Shortall ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="5" | Dublin South | Peter Mathews ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Olivia Mitchell ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Shane Ross ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |- | Alan Shatter ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Alex White ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="5" | Dublin South–Central | Catherine Byrne ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Eric Byrne ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Joan Collins ! style="background-color: #660000; width: 1px;" | | [[People Before Profit Alliance | Teimpléad:People Before Profit Alliance/meta/shortname]] |- | Michael Conaghan ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Aengus Ó Snodaigh ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Dublin South–East | Lucinda Creighton ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Kevin Humphreys ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Eoghan Murphy ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Ruairi Quinn ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Dublin South–West | Seán Crowe ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |- | Brian Hayes ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Eamonn Maloney ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Pat Rabbitte ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Dublin West | Joan Burton ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Joe Higgins ! style="background-color: #FF3300; width: 1px;" | | [[Socialist Party (Ireland) | Teimpléad:Socialist Party (Ireland)/meta/shortname]] |- | Brian Lenihan ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Leo Varadkar ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Dún Laoghaire | Seán Barrett ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Richard Boyd Barrett ! style="background-color: #660000; width: 1px;" | | [[People Before Profit Alliance | Teimpléad:People Before Profit Alliance/meta/shortname]] |- | Eamon Gilmore ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Mary Mitchell O'Connor ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Galway East | Ciarán Cannon ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Paul Connaughton, Jnr ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Colm Keaveney ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Michael Kitt ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="5" | Galway West | Noel Grealish ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |- | Seán Kyne ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Derek Nolan ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Éamon Ó Cuív ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Brian Walsh ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Kerry North–West Limerick | Jimmy Deenihan ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Martin Ferris ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |- | Arthur Spring ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Kerry South | Brendan Griffin ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Tom Fleming ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |- | Michael Healy-Rae ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Kildare North | Bernard Durkan ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Anthony Lawlor ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Catherine Murphy ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |- | Emmet Stagg ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Kildare South | Martin Heydon ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Seán Ó Fearghaíl ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Jack Wall ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="5" | Laois–Offaly | Marcella Corcoran Kennedy ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Barry Cowen ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Charles Flanagan ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Seán Fleming ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Brian Stanley ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Limerick | Niall Collins ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Dan Neville ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Patrick O'Donovan ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Limerick City | Michael Noonan ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Willie O'Dea ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Kieran O'Donnell ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Jan O'Sullivan ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Longford–Westmeath | James Bannon ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Nicky McFadden ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Willie Penrose ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Robert Troy ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="5" | Louth | Gerry Adams ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |- | Peter Fitzpatrick ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Séamus Kirk ! style="background-color: #000000; width: 1px;" | | Ceann Comhairle |- | Gerald Nash ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Fergus O'Dowd ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="5" | Mayo | Dara Calleary ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Enda Kenny ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Michelle Mulherin ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | John O'Mahony ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Michael Ring ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Meath East | Regina Doherty ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Dominic Hannigan ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Shane McEntee ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Meath West | Ray Butler ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Damien English ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Peadar Tóibín ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Roscommon–South Leitrim | Frank Feighan ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Luke 'Ming' Flanagan ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |- | Denis Naughten ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Sligo–North Leitrim | Michael Colreavy ! style="background-color: #008800; width: 1px;" | | Sinn Féin |- | Tony McLoughlin ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | John Perry ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Tipperary North | Noel Coonan ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Alan Kelly ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Michael Lowry ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="3" | Tipperary South | Tom Hayes ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Séamus Healy ! style="background-color: #FA8072; width: 1px;" | | [[Workers and Unemployed Action Group | Teimpléad:Workers and Unemployed Action Group/meta/shortname]] |- | Mattie McGrath ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="4" | Waterford | Paudie Coffey ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Ciara Conway ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | John Deasy ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | John Halligan ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="5" | Wexford | John Browne ! style="background-color: #66BB66; width: 1px;" | | Fianna Fáil |- | Brendan Howlin ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Paul Kehoe ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Liam Twomey ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Mick Wallace ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |-

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|- style="border-top: 2px solid gray;" | rowspan="5" | Wicklow | Stephen Donnelly ! style="background-color: Teimpléad:Independent (politician)/meta/color; width: 1px;" | | Neamhspleách |- | Andrew Doyle ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Anne Ferris ! style="background-color: #CC0000; width: 1px;" | | Páirtí an Lucht Oibre |- | Simon Harris ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |- | Billy Timmins ! style="background-color: #6699FF; width: 1px;" | | Fine Gael |-

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Teimpléad:End

Bás don Bhéarla[athraigh | athraigh vicithéacs]

Is faireog san inchinn a thálann hormóin a mbíonn éifeacht acu ar an bhfaireog thíoróideach é An Piotútach.


The Irish language. The Irish language is the oldest vernacular written language in Western Europe. Irish is the main language that has deen spoken in Ireland for almost 9000 years. A language that has given us the Táin, the Fiannaíocht, the Rúraíocht, laments, songs, Ó Ríordáin, Ó Cadhain, Mhac an tSaoi, Rosenstock, Hector, Hiúdaí, and Seo Linn. A language that explains our names and our human geography, a language that has been moulded by us over thousands of years and changed us in turn.

There are roughly 6700 languages on Earth and it is thought that most of these will be gone within one hundred years. Will Irish remain or will it linger on in recorded form only?

For many of us who speak Irish we have had to put up with mistreatment because we speak Irish. Some of us have been told we must be poor because we do, others told that we are eilitist. Some of us have been told patronizingly that we speak a dead language, some have even been arrested for speaking Irish. Others still have been denied an education through Irish, even in the Gaeltacht. They have tried to break our spirit, they have thrown us insults, and they have taken vitla services away, becase we speak Irish.

What other country on the planet would tell you you are rude to speak your own language? What other country on the planet would deny you access to healthcare because you speak th first official language? What other country would teach you a language for fourteen years and then not allow you to use it with them?

There is a significant gap between the desires of the population regarding the language and the desires of the state itself.

The state is not going to stand in the way of the language transmission from Irish to English.

We demand that the state deals with us in our main language and the first offcial language of the state. While these services are important we must remember that we have to use them and show there is demand for them. but moore importantly and more basic than that we have to use Irish we everyone er know to have Irish, because we speak Irish, and most importantly that it is the main language of our families, our relationships and friendships., becuase we speak Irish.

History will tell us that things could have been done but that they werent.

We should be proud of our language, in the modern world, there is little we can say is truly ours. Irish is ours and we should promote it in any way possible, because we speak Irish! We are at a juncture in the way the state treats Irish-speakers. are you willing to stand up and be counted, to retain and extend the services we deserve and will you act wit us?

History will tell us that things could have been done but that they weren't.

History will tell us that we had an opportunity but that we did not seize it.

History will tell us that the Irish language used to be a beautiful language.

What will you tell us?




An Ghaeilge. Is í an Ghaeilge an phríomhtheanga a labhraíodh in Éirinn le beagnach 9 míle bliain agus is í an teanga scríofa is sine dá bhfuil againn in iarthar na hEorpa. Teanga í a thug An Táin, an Fhiannaíocht, an Rúraíocht, na caointe, na hamhráin, An Ríordánach, Ó Cadhain, Mhac an tSaoi, Rosenstock, Hector, Hiúdaí, is Seo Linn dúinn. Teanga a mhíníonn ár n-ainmneacha is ár n-áit-ainmneacha, teanga a múnlaíodh againn ar feadh na mílte bliain is teanga a mhúnlaíonn sinn.

Tá 6700 teanga ar domhan agus meastar go mbeidh 90 faoin gcéad acu sin básaithe faoi cheann céad bliain. An mbeidh an Ghaeilge i measc na dteangacha sin a sheasfaidh an fód, nó an mbeidh sí le fáil sna leabhair amháin amach anseo?

D'éinne againn a labhraíonn Gaeilge tá cuid mhór againn ar caitheadh go dona linn mar gur Gaeil sinn. Roinnt againn dúradh linn gur bochtáin sinn as í a labhairt, roinnt eile go raibheamar ag ceapadh go raibheamar níos fearr mar gur labhraíomar Gaeilge. Dúradh le roinnt againn gur teanga mharbh atá inti, daoine eile gabhadh sinn mar gur Gaeil sinn. Daoine eile fós ceileadh ceart chun oideachais lán-Ghaeilge sa Ghaeltacht orainn mar gur Gaeil sinn. Rinneadh iarracht ár sprid a bhriseadh, caitheadh masluithe linn, baineadh seirbhísí uainn, mar gur Gaeil sinn.

Cén tír eile ar domhan a ndéarfaí go bhfuil tú drochbhéasach as do theanga féin a labhairt? Cén tír eile ar domhan a gceilfí ceart ar chúram leighis ort de bharr go labhraíonn tú do theanga dúchais? Cén tír eile ar domhan a mhúinfeadh teanga duit ar feadh 14 bliana déag is ansin nach dtabharfadh cead duit í a labhairt leo?


'Tá..bearna shuntasach idir mianta an phobail i leith na teanga agus iarracht an státchórais féin i leith na teanga' (An Coimisinéir Teanga 'Níl an Stát ag dul a sheasamh sa mbealach ar an aistriú teanga ón Ghaeilge go dtí an Béarla' Conchúr Ó Giollagáin, Pleanálaí Teanga.

Táimid ag éileamh ár gcearta ar an stát plé linn inár rogha teanga, príomhtheanga go leor againn agus príomhtheanga oifigiúil an stáit.

Tá na seirbhísí seo ar fad tábhachtach ach caithfear cuimhneamh gur gá dúinn iad a úsáid, is léiriú go bhfuil gá leo, ach níos tábhachtaí is níos bunúsaí ná sin Gaeilge a labhairt le gach éinne a bhfuil sí acu mar gur Gaeil sinn, agus ar an rud is tábhachtaí ar fad ná go mbeadh sí mar phríomhtheanga againn féin inár dteaghlaigh, inár gcaidrimh agus inár gcairdis mar gur Gaeil sinn!

Déarfaidh an stair go raibh rudaí indéanta ach nár dearnadh..." Máirtín Ó Cadhain, Comhar 1969

Ba chóir dúinn bheith bródúil aisti seo, sa saol seo is beag is féidir a rá gur linn go hiomlán é, is linne an Ghaeilge agus ba chóir dúinn í a chur chun cinn i ngach slí gur féidir linn, mar gur Gaeil sinn. Is am cinniúnach atá ann anois ó thaobh na Gaeilge sa stát seo, an bhfuil tusa sásta seasamh sa bhearna bhaoil, na seirbhísí atá dlite dúinn a éileamh go glórach, is gníomhú linn?

Déarfaidh an stair go raibh rudaí indéanta ach nár dearnadh,

Déarfaidh an stair go raibh deis againn ach nár ghlacamar léi

Déarfaidh an stair gur teanga álainn a bhíodh sa Ghaeilge

Céard a déarfaidh tú?