Fuigeanna (páirtí polaitíochta)

Ón Vicipéid, an chiclipéid shaor.
(Athsheolta ó Fuig)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
A Block for the Wigs—or, the new State Whirligig

Ba fhaicsean polaitiúil iad na Fuigeanna agus ina dhiaidh sin ba pháirtí polaitíochta i bParlaimintí Shasana, na hAlban, na Breataine Móire, na hÉireann agus na Ríochta Aontaithe iad. Idir na 1680idí agus na 1850idí, chuaigh na Fuigeanna san iomaíocht le haghaidh cumhachta lena n-iomaitheoirí, na Tóraithe. Chomhcheangail na Fuigeanna leis an Pháirtí Liobrálach nua sna 1850idí, cé gur fhág roinnt Fuigeanna uaisle an Páirtí Liobrálach i 1885 chun an Pháirtí Aontachtach Liobrálach a bhunú, a chónascadh le hiomaitheoirí na Liobrálaithe, an Páirtí Coimeádach nua-aimseartha sa bhliain 1912.

Bhí bunús na bhFuigeanna leagtha amach san mhonarcacht bunreachtúil agus i naimhdeas i gcoinne na monarcachta absalóidí, agus i dtacsíocht a thabhairt don chóras parlaiminteach. Bhí ról lárnach ag na Fuigeanna san Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar de 1688, agus ba naimhde seasta iad do ríthe agus na Seacaibítigh, ar Caitlicigh Rómhánacha iad. Ghlac na Fuigeanna smacht iomlán ar an rialtas i 1715 agus d’fhan siad i gceannas go hiomlán go dtí gur ghlac an Rí Seoirse III an cathaoir ríoga i 1760, a lig do na Tóraithe teacht ar ais. Cumasaíodh ardcheannas na bhFuigeanna (1715–1760) leis an chomharbas Hanófarach de Sheoirse I na Breataine Móire i 1714 agus éirí amach na Seacaibíteach teipthe 1715 ag reibiliúnaithe Thoraí. Fuair na Fuigeanna réidh le na Tóraithe go críochnúil ó gach post tábhachtach sa rialtas, san arm, san Eaglais, i ngairm an dlí agus in oifigí áitiúla. Bhí greim an pháirtí ar chumhacht chomh láidir agus chomh marthanach go nglaonn staraithe an tréimhse ó thart ar 1714 go 1783 mar aois olagarcacht na bhFuigeanna.[1] Ba é Robert Walpole an chéad cheannaire mór le rá ar na bhFuigeanna, a choinnigh smacht ar an rialtas (1721–1742) agus a raibh a protégé Henry Pelham i gceannas air (1743–1754).

Naisc sheachtracha[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Leabharliosta[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  • Black, Jeremy (2001). "Walpole in Power". Sutton. 
  • Brewer, John (1976). "Party Ideology and Popular Politics at the Accession of George III". Cambridge University Press. 
  • "The Whig Ascendancy: Colloquies on Hanoverian England" (1981). Edward Arnold. 
  • Carswell, John (1954). "The Old Cause: Three Biographical Studies in Whiggism". Cresset Press. 
  • Dickinson, H. T. (1973). "Walpole and the Whig Supremacy". 
  • Elofson, Warren M. The Rockingham Connection and the Second Founding of the Whig Party 1768–1773 (1996).
  • Fairlie, Henry. "Oratory in Political Life," History Today (Jan 1960) 10#1 pp 3-13. A survey of political oratory in Britain from 1730 to 1960.
  • Feiling, Keith; A History of the Tory Party, 1640–1714, 1924 online edition.
  • Feiling, Keith; The Second Tory Party, 1714–1832, 1938 online edition.
  • Harris, William (1885). "The History of the Radical Party in Parliament". Kegan Paul, Trench & Co.. 
  • Hay, William Anthony (2005). "The Whig Revival: 1808–1830". Palgreave Macmillan. 
  • Holmes, Geoffrey. "British Politics in the Age of Anne" (2nd ed. 1987).
  • Jones; J. R. The First Whigs: The Politics of the Exclusion Crisis, 1678–1683, 1961 online edition.
  • McCallum; Ronald Buchanan. The Liberal Party from Earl Grey to Asquith (1963).
  • Marshall, Dorothy. Eighteenth Century England (1962) online. A standard scholarly history.
  • Mitchell, L. G. (1971). "Charles James Fox and the Disintegration of the Whig Party, 1782–1794". Oxford University Press. 
  • Mitchell, Austin (1967). "The Whigs in Opposition, 1815–1830". Clarendon Press. 
  • O'Gorman, Frank. Voters, patrons, and parties: the unreformed electoral system of Hanoverian England 1734–1832 (Clarendon Press, 1989).
  • Plumb, J.H. Growth of Political Stability in England 1675–1725 (2001).
  • Reid; Loren Dudley. Charles James Fox: A Man for the People, 1969 online edition.
  • Speck, W. A. Stability and Strife: England, 1714–1760 (1977), A standard scholarly history.
  • Trevelyan, George Otto. The Early History of Charles James Fox (1880) online edition.
  • Williams, Basil, and C. H. Stuart; The Whig Supremacy, 1714–1760 (1962) online edition. A standard scholarly survey
  • Willman, Robert. "The Origins of 'Whig' and 'Tory' in English Political Language." Historical Journal 17, no. 2 (1974): 247-64. online.
  • Woodward; E. L. The Age of Reform, 1815–1870, 1938 online edition. A standard scholarly stream.

Staireolaíocht[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  • Hill, Brain W. "II. Executive Monarchy and the Challenge of Parties, 1689–1832: Two Concepts of Government and Two Historiographical Interpretations." The Historical Journal (1970) 13#3 pp: 379–401. abstract.
  • Loades, David ed. Readers Guide to British History (2003) 2:1353–56.
  • Thomas, Peter D. G. "Party Politics in Eighteenth‐Century Britain: Some Myths and a Touch of Reality." Journal for Eighteenth‐Century Studies (1987) 10#2 pp. 201–210.

Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. Holmes, Geoffrey; and Szechi, D. (2014). The Age of Oligarchy: Pre-Industrial Britain 1722–1783. Routledge. p. xi. ISBN 131789426X. ISBN 978-1317894261.