Bearnas sléibhtiúil is ea Bearnas Bholān tríd an Sliabhraon Toba Kakar de chuid na Balúcastáine, réigiún in iarthar na Pacastáin, 120 ciliméadar ó theorann na hAfganastáin. Ceanglaíonn sé Sibi le Quetta, ag bóthar agus iarnród. Tá bearnas féin déanta suas de roinnt craosán caol agus síneann sé 89 km ó Rindli ó thuaidh chuig Darwāza in aice le Kolpur i gCúige na Balochistaine de chuid na Pacastáine.
Stair[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]
Sa bhliain 1837, d'fhéadfadh sé go mbeadh ionradh Rúiseach faoi bhagairt ar an Áise Theas tríd an Teorann Thiar Thuaidh via na bearnais Khyber agus Bholān. Mar gheall ar an mbagairt seo, seoladh toscaire na Breataine chuig Cabul chun tacaíochta na hÉimíre Dost Mohammed a fháil. I Mí Feabhra 1839, ghlac Arm na Breataine faoi Sir John Keane 12,000 fear trí Bhearnas Bholān agus isteach chuig Kandahar, a bhí tréigthe ag Prionsaí na hAfganastáine; agus as sin leo ina dhiaidh sin ag ionsaí agus ag treascairt Ghazni.
"The road through this pass leads, with few and rare exceptions, along what is the bed of a mountain-torrent, when filled by the melting of the snows or heavy rains, and is composed of loose shingly gravel, that recedes from under your feet, and is very difficult for draught: camels get on well. It is infested by the Kakurs, who live by robbery; and the hills sometimes close in upon the road, which is filled up by the bed of the stream, running through rocky chasms, upwards of a hundred feet high, from the top of which the robbers assail the travellers with stones; and were they as bold as they are cruel and perfidious, they might hold the place against all comers. Many spots were pointed out to me by the guides I had with me, as signalised by acts of violence, several European officers having lost their baggage during our occupation of the country. Should there be rain in the higher parts of the mountains, the stream at times comes down in an almost perpendicular volume, without warning, and sweeping all before it, as a friend of mine experienced, when he saw a party of men, horses, and camels, and all his property, borne down by it; when himself and some few men with him escaped by climbing up the nearly perpendicular side of the hill. About thirty-seven men were washed away upon that occasion."."
Sa bhliain 1883, chuaigh Sir Robert Groves Sandeman i mbun idirbheartaíochta leis an Cán na Kalat, Khudadad Khan, agus dhaingnigh sé rialú na Breataine thar an bhearnais mar mhalairt air táille bhliantúil.
Iarnróid Bhearnais Bholān[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]
Féach freisin[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]
- An Bhalúcastáin
Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]
- Leagan ar líne de Encyclopædia Britannica 4ú deireadh Fómhair. 2014.
- "An Bolan Pas A Fháil."—Sliocht as litir ó Oifigeach de chuid an Airtléire Europe, dar dáta an Campa ag "Quetra," nó, níos mó i gceart, "a Shawl Kot," i Khorasan, 2ú nollaig, 1841. JRGS, Vol. 12 (1842), lgh 109-110.
- Singh, Sarina (2004). "Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway". Lonely Planet.