Fuinneamh dorcha

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Fuinneamh aineoil is ea an fuinneamh dorcha i gcosmeolaíocht fhisiciúil agus i réalteolaíocht; tá sé le fáil ar fud an spáis agus tá claonadh aige chun leathnú na cruinne a ghéarú de réir dhlí Hubble.[1][2] Is í teoiric an fhuinnimh dhorcha is fearr a dhearbhaíonn na grinnithe a rinneadh ó na 1990idí i leith, grinnithe a thaispeánann go bhfuil leathnú na cruinne ag brostú.[3]

Má dhéantar talamh slán de go bhfuil bunus le samhail chomhréireachta na cosmeolaíochta, cuireann na tomhais is fearr in iúl go bhfáisctear 68% den fhuinneamh sa chruinne inbhraite as an bhfuinneamh dorcha.[4][5][6][7] Tá dlús an fhuinnimh dhorcha an-íseal (~ 7 × 10−30 g/cm3), i bhfad níos ísle ná dlús an ghnáthdhamhna nó an fhuinnimh dhorcha laistigh de réaltraí. Ach tá tábhacht ar leith leis i maisfhuinnimh na cruinne toisc go bhfuil sé aonfhoirmeach trasna an spáis.[8][9][10] Maítear go bhfuil dhá chineál fuinnimh dhorcha ann: an chomhréireacht chosmeolaíoch a líonann an spás go haonchineálach mar dhlús buan fuinnimh,[11][12] agus réimsí scálacha ar nós saineisinte nó moduli, cainníochtaí dinimiciúla ar féidir lena ndlús fuinnimh athrú san am agus sa spás.

Ó tá cosmeolaíocht na comhréireachta ag brath ar shamhail shimplí, creidtear[13] go bhféadfaí fáil réidh le teoiric an fhuinnimh dhorcha dá dtabharfaí cuntas níos beaichte ar na struchtúir atá le fáil ar gach scála sa chruinne.[14]

Nótaí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. "Cosmos Controversy: The Universe Is Expanding, but How Fast?". The New York Times.
  2. Peebles, P. J. E.; Ratra, Bharat, "The cosmological constant and dark energy," 2003, Reviews of Modern Physics, arxiv=astro-ph/0207347, imleabhar 75, eagrán 2, lgh 559–606: DOI 10.1103/RevModPhys.75.559|bibcode=2003RvMP...75..559P}}
  3. "Have Dark Forces Been Messing With the Cosmos? – Axions? Phantom energy? Astrophysicists scramble to patch a hole in the universe, rewriting cosmic history in the process.". The New York Times.
  4. "Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results – Table 9, Astronomy and Astrophysics, imleabhar 571, lch A1: P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; C. Armitage-Caplan; et al. (Planck Collaboration) C. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; M. Atrio-Barandela; F. Aumont; J. Aussel; H. Baccigalupi; C. Banday; A. J. Barreiro; R. B. Barrena; R. Bartelmann; M. Bartlett; J. G. Bartolo; N. Basak; S. Battaner; E. Battye; R. Benabed; K. Benoît; A. Benoit-Lévy; A. Bernard; J.-P. Bersanelli; M. Bertincourt; B. Bethermin; M. Bielewicz; P. Bikmaev; I. Blanchard; A. Bobin; 22 Márta 2013, arxiv=1303.5062|bibcode = 2014A&A...571A...1P: DOI 10.1051/0004-6361/201321529
  5. http://www.sciops.esa.int/index.php?project=PLANCK&page=Planck_Published_Papers, "Planck 2013 Results Papers," Astronomy and Astrophysics, imleabhar 571, lch A1: P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; C. Armitage-Caplan; et al. (Planck Collaboration) C. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; M. Atrio-Barandela; F. Aumont; J. Aussel; H. Baccigalupi; C. Banday; A. J. Barreiro; R. B. Barrena; R. Bartelmann; M. Bartlett; J. G. Bartolo; N. Basak; S. Battaner; E. Battye; R. Benabed; K. Benoît; A. Benoit-Lévy; A. Bernard; J.-P. Bersanelli; M. Bertincourt; B. Bethermin; M. Bielewicz; P. Bikmaev; I. Blanchard; A. Bobin: 31 Márta 2013, arxiv=1303.5062 |bibcode=2014A&A...571A...1P |doi=10.1051/0004-6361/201321529
  6. "First Planck results: the Universe is still weird and interesting".
  7. Sean Carroll, Ph.D., Caltech, 2007, The Teaching Company, Dark Matter, Dark Energy: The Dark Side of the Universe, Guidebook Part 2 page 46. Retrieved Oct. 7, 2013, "...dark energy: A smooth, persistent component of invisible energy, thought to make up about 70 percent of the current energy density of the universe. Dark energy is known to be smooth because it doesn't accumulate preferentially in galaxies and clusters..."
  8. Paul J. Steinhardt (2006). "{{{title}}}". Science 312 (5777): 1180–1183. doi:10.1126/science.1126231. PMID 16675662. Bibcode2006Sci...312.1180S. 
  9. "Dark Energy". Hyperphysics.
  10. "Dark Matter(Dark Energy)".
  11. "Moon findings muddy the water".
  12. Carroll, Sean, 2001: http://relativity.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrr-2001-1/index.html, "The cosmological constant|journal=Living Reviews in Relativity," imleabhar 4, eagrán 1, lch 1, léite 2006-09-28: DOI 10.12942/lrr-2001-1|pmid=28179856|pmc=5256042|arxiv=astro-ph/0004075|bibcode=2001LRR.....4....1C
  13. Buchert, T; Carfora, M; Ellis, G F R; Kolb, E W; MacCallum, M A H; Ostrowski, J J; Räsänen, S; Roukema, B F; Andersson, L; Coley, A A; Wiltshire, D L: 2015-11-05, "Is there proof that backreaction of inhomogeneities is irrelevant in cosmology?": http://stacks.iop.org/0264-9381/32/i=21/a=215021?key=crossref.a87c19114f05a706324dc8391352fbd5, Classical and Quantum Gravity, imleabhar 32, eagrán 21, lgh 215021, DOI 10.1088/0264-9381/32/21/215021, ISSN 0264-9381
  14. Clarkson, Chris; Ellis, George; Larena, Julien; Umeh, Obinna (2011-11-01): "Does the growth of structure affect our dynamical models of the Universe? The averaging, backreaction, and fitting problems in cosmology": http://stacks.iop.org/0034-4885/74/i=11/a=112901?key=crossref.50224d44d3de1e7fc151ad98fad9c7cf, Reports on Progress in Physics, imleabhar 74, eagrán 11, lgh 112901: DOI 10.1088/0034-4885/74/11/112901, ISSN 0034-4885