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Liosta de rialóirí na Breataine Bige

Ón Vicipéid, an chiclipéid shaor.
Léarscáil na Breataine Bige sa Mheánaois

Roimh Choncas na Breataine Bige, a críochnaíodh sa bhliain 1282, bhí an Bhreatain Bheag comhdhéanta de roinnt ríochtaí neamhspleácha, agus is iad Gwynedd, Powys, Deheubarth (Ceredigion, Seisyllwg agus Dyfed ar dtús) agus Morgannwg (Glywysing agus Gwent). De bharr athruithe teorann agus roinnt chothrom na pátrúnachta níor tháinig mórán prionsaí riamh fíorghar do rialú na Breataine Bige ar fad. Laistíos liostaítear ainmneacha na ndaoine sin ar eol a bheith i gceannas ar cheann amháin nó níos mó de na ríochtaí. Ba é an t-aon duine arbh eol a bhí i gceannas ar an mBreatain Bheag ar fad ná Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1010-1063), prionsa ar Gwynedd a bhí ina Rí ar an mBreatain Bheag ó 1055 go 1063. Mar sin féin, bhí údarás chomh suntasach ag prionsaí na meánaoise arb as iarthar na Breataine Bige iad, Gwynedd go príomha, a thug deis dóibh údarás a éileamh lasmuigh de theorainneacha a ríochtaí féin. Leis sin, bhí cuid mhór Prionsaí in ann a mhaíomh go raibh siad in ann an Bhreatain Bheag go léir a rialú.[1]

Rhodri Mawr molta ag roinnt mar an chéad rí ar an mBreatain Bheag, agus an chéad cheann a d'aontódh an chuid is mó den Bhreatain Bheag. Ní raibh críoch na Breataine Bige comhaimseartha aontaithe go hiomlán ach faoi riail dhíreach Gruffydd ap Llywelyn ó 1055 go 1063 de réir an staraí John Davies. Bhí úsáid dhúchais an teidil ‘Prionsa na Breataine Bige’ le feiceáil níos minice faoin aonú haois déag mar fhoirm ‘nua-aoiseach’ nó leasaithe de shean-ardrí na mBriotanach. Tháinig deireadh le húsáid dhúchasach na dteideal tar éis marú Llywelyn ap Gruffudd agus a dheartháir, Dafydd ap Gruffydd agus ó shin i leith tá an teideal Prionsa na Breataine Bige in úsáid ag na Sasanaigh agus ansin ag monarcacht na Breataine.

An teideal "Taoiseach na Breataine Bige’ nó 'Tywysog Cymru'[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tá Rhodri Mawr molta ag roinnt mar an chéad rí ar an mBreatain Bheag, agus an chéad cheann a d'aontaigh an chuid is mó den Bhreatain Bheag le chéile .[2]

Sular ceapadh Ríthe na Breataine Bige[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Roimh an teideal Tywysog Cymru, baineadh úsáid as an teideal Brenin y Brythoniaid ( Rí na mBriotanach) chun cur síos a dhéanamh ar na mBriotanaigh Cheilteacha, sinsear na mBreatnach.[3] Liostaíonn Brut y Tywysogion, (Croinic na dTaoiseach) a scríobhadh tráth nach luaithe ná lár an 16ú haois, go leor Ríthe na mBreatnach mar "Rí na Breataine Bige".[4][5][6]

Liosta sealbhóirí teidil "Rí na Breataine Bige"[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Seo a leanas liosta díobh siúd a sannadh nó a éilíonn an teideal Rí nó Prionsa na Breataine Bige, lena n-áirítear "Ríthe agus Prionsaí na Breataine Bige 844 - 1283". Cé gur mhaígh go leor ceannairí éagsúla sa Bhreatain Bheag an teideal ‘Rí na Breataine Bige’ agus go raibh sé i gceannas ar thromlaigh na Breataine Bige, ní raibh críoch na Breataine Bige sa lá inniu aontaithe go hiomlán ach faoi riail dhíreach Gruffydd ap Llywelyn ó 1055 go 1063 de réir an staraí John Davies.[7][8] Thug John of Worcester tagairt do Gruffydd ap Llywelyn mar Rí na Breataine Bige nó Rex Walensium.[9] Bhí sé ar an duine deiridh de de rialtóirí ardchumhachtacha i measc na mBreatnach oileánach ar bronnadh an teideal Rí na mBreatnach orthu, agus b'fhéidir an t-aon duine amháin a bhí i gceannas go fírinneach ar na mBreatnaigh (neamhspleách) go léir. Faoin am seo, mura raibh níos luaithe, ba í an Bhreatain Bheag an t-aon chuid den Bhreatain a bhí fágtha faoi riail na mBriotanach.[10]

Íomhá Ainm &

sonraí saoil

Armas pearsanta Teaghlach, Ríocht Teidil Bhreatnacha Réimeas Bás & cúis Foinse
King of Wales
Cynan Dindaethwy

(Cynan ap Rhodri)

Gwynedd (go neamhchinnte ó 754)
  • "Brenin Cymry oll" (Gaeilge: "Rí na Breataine Bige uile"
798 – 816 Brut y Tywysogion[11]

Annals of UlsterAnnales Cambriae

Rhodri Mawr

(Rhodri ap Merfyn)

Gwynedd, ó 855 freisin Powys, ó 872 freisin Seisyllwg
  • "thosnaigh sé ag rialú na mBreatnach" (843 AD)
843 Brut y Tywysogion[11]

Annála Uladh

Cadell ap Rhodri
  • "i gceannas ar an mBreatain Bheag ar fad" (877 AD)
877 Brut y Tywysogion[11]
Anarawd ap Rhodri
  • "i gceannas ar an mBreatain Bheag ar fad" (900 AD)
900 Brut y Tywysogion[11]
Hywel Dda (Hywel ap Cadell) Deheubarth (from 920), ó 942 freisin Gwynedd and Powys
  • "Brenin Cymry oll"
942-949/50 Brut y Tywysogion[11]

Annála Uladh Annales Cambriae

Aeddan ap Blegywryd
  • "fuair an Bhreatain Bheag uile ó mhuir go muir" (1000 AD)
1000 Brut y Tywysogion[11]
Llywelyn ap Seisyll Gwynedd agus Powys; ó 1022 freisin Deheubarth
  • "ghlac an rialtas air féin...ina aimsir bhí tír na Breataine Bige dhá bhliain déag gan cogadh "
  • "flaitheas na Breataine Bige"
1023 Brut y Tywysogion[11]

Annála Uladh

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn

1010 - 1063

Gwynedd and Powys, ó 1057 freisin an chuid eile de An Bhreatain Bheag
  • Rex Walensium ("Rí na Breataine Bige")[12]
  • Rí na mBriotanach (i 1063; i 1058)
  • "Bhuaigh an Bhreatain Bheag ar fad roimh 1037"[11]
  • Bhí i gceannas ar an Bhreatain Bheag chomhaimseartha ó 1055 go 1063.[13][14]
Deir Annála Uladh gur mharaigh Cynan é sa bhliain 1064, ar chuir Gruffydd a athair Iago chun báis sa bhliain 1039.[15] John of Worcester[12]

Annála Uladh

Brut y Tywysogion

King of Wales (and Prince of Wales title)
Gruffudd ap Cynan

1055 –1137

Teaghlach Aberffraw, Gwynedd (go neamhchinnte ó 1081)
  • "rí, ceannaire, prionsa, cosantóir agus síothadóir na mBreatnach go léir" (in 1136)[16]
  • "Gruffudd rí na mBreatnach"[17]
1137 Fuair bás i 1137, aged 81–82. Brut y Tywysogion
Owain Gwynedd

1100 -Samhain 1170

Gwynedd (armas de chuid Caernarfon é a luaitear go haisghníomhach)
  • Prionsa thar náisiún na Breataine (in 1146)
  • Rí na Breataine Bige
  • Rí na mBreatnach
  • Prionsa na mBreatnach
1146–1170 Fuair bás i 1170, d'aois 69–70. Brut y Tywysogion; contemporary charters.[18]

Éabhlóid ó Rí go Prionsa[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Bhí úsáid dhúchais an teidil ‘Prionsa na Breataine Bige’ le feiceáil níos minice faoin aonú haois déag mar fhoirm ‘nua-aoiseach’ nó ‘leasaithe’ de shean-ardrígh na mBreatnach. Ba iad na Breatnaigh ArdRíthe na mBriotanach ar dtús suas go dtí nach raibh an t-éileamh a bheith ina ardrí ar an mBreatain (an phroibhinse Rómhánach) réalaíoch tar éis bháis Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon i 664.[19] Bhí baint mhór ag Cadwaldr freisin le siombail an Dragúin Dheirg de chuid na Breataine Bige.[20][21] Ba as iarthar na Breataine Bige iad prionsaí na meánaoise, go príomha Gwynedd. Bhí údarás chomh suntasach sin acu a thug deis dóibh údarás a éileamh thar theorainneacha a ríochtaí. Mar gheall air seo, bhí go leor Prionsaí in ann éileamh a dhéanamh ar an mBreatain Bheag ar fad.[1]

Deireadh na Prionsaí Breatnacha dúchasacha[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Rinneadh luíochán roimh Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prionsa deireanach na Breataine Bige, agus maraíodh é sa bhliain 1282. Chuir forghníomhú a dhearthár Dafydd ap Gruffydd i 1283 ar orduithe an rí Éadbhard I Shasana deireadh le neamhspleáchas na Breataine Bige. D'úsáid monarcacht Shasana an teideal 'Prionsa na Breataine Bige' as sin amach le haghaidh oidhre na ríchathaoireach Sasanaí.[22][23]

I rith na tréimhse 1400–1413, tar éis éirí amach in aghaidh riail Shasana sa Bhreatain Bheag, bhí Prionsa dúchasach ann, Owain Glyndwr agus Phrionsa na Breataine Bige eile, ceaptha ag an monarc Sasanach (a rinneadh Anraí V Shasana de ina dhiaidh sin). Bhí Owain Glyndwr i gceannas ar fhórsaí na Breataine Bige in aghaidh an phrionsa Shasanaigh agus riail Shasana sa Bhreatain Bheag.[24][25]

Íomhá Ainm &

sonraí saoil

Armas pearsanta Armas na Ríochta Teaghlach, Ríocht Teidil Bhreatnacha Réimeas Bás & cúis Foinse
Prince of Wales title (and King of Wales title)
Gruffudd ap Cynan

1055 –1137

House of Aberffraw, Gwynedd (insecurely from 1081)
  • "king and sovereign and prince and defender and pacifier of all the Welsh" (in 1136)[26]
1137 Died in 1137, aged 81–82. Brut y Tywysogion
Owain Gwynedd

1100 - November 1170

Gwynedd (coat of arms is of Caernarfon which is retroactively attributed)
  • Prince over the British nation (in 1146)
  • King of Wales
  • King of the Welsh
  • Prince of the Welsh
  • Princeps Wallensium[27]
1146–1170 Died in 1170, aged 69–70. Brut y Tywysogion; contemporary charters.[28]
Prince of Wales title only
Rhys ap Gruffydd

(The Lord Rhys) 1132 – 28 April 1197

Deheubarth (from 1155)
  • Head of all Wales (in 1197)
  • Prince of the Welsh (in 1184)
  • Prince of Wales
1184–1197 Died in 1197, aged 65. Brut y Tywysogion; contemporary charters.
Llywelyn the Great

(Llywelyn ap Iorwerth) 1173 – 11 April 1240

Kingdom of Gwynedd
Gwynedd (from 1194), from 1208 also Powys, from 1216 also Deheubarth
  • Prince of the Welsh (in 1228)
  • Prince of Wales (in 1240)
  • Ruled all of Wales[29]
1228–1240 Died in 1240, aged 66–67. Brut y Tywysogion

contemporary charters

Dafydd ap Llywelyn

March 1212 - 25 February 1246

Kingdom of Gwynedd
Gwynedd
  • Prince of Wales (from 1220)
1220–1246 Died suddenly in 1246, aged 33. Treaty with England
Llywelyn the Last

(Llywelyn ap Gruffydd) 1223 – 11 December 1282

Kingdom of Gwynedd
Gwynedd (from 1246), at times also Powys and Deheubarth

Succeeded Dafydd in 1246 as prince of Gwynedd.

  • Prince of Wales (in 1264; in 1258; in 1267; 1258–82)
  • Used title "Prince of Wales" from 1258. (Recognised by Henry III 29 September 1267)
1258–1282 Killed on 11 December 1282, aged 59.

Killed by English soldiers in an ambush trick under the guise of discussions. His head was paraded in London and placed on a Tower of London spike.[30]

Brut y Tywysogion

treaty with Scotland treaty with England letters charters

Dafydd ap Gruffydd

11 July 1238 – 3 October 1283

Kingdom of GwyneddTeimpléad:Needs citation
Gwynedd
  • Prince of Wales (in 1283)
1282–1283 Killed on October 3, 1283.

Dragged through the streets of Shrewsbury by a horse, hanged, revived and disemboweled. His bowels were thrown into a fire as he watched. Finally, his head was cut off and placed on a Tower of London spike next to his brother Llywelyn, and his body cut into quarters.[31]

Letters[32]
English rule begins following the torture and beheading of Dafydd ap Gruffydd.
Madog ap Llywelyn
(most likely, Prince of Wales arms via Kingdom of Gwynedd)Teimpléad:Needs citation
Gwynedd
  • Prince of Wales (in 1294)
1294–1295

(Not recognised by the English monarchy)

Unknown.

Held prisoner in London (most likely the Tower of London.)

Penmachno Document
Owain Lawgoch
Prince of Wales arms

via the Kingdom of Gwynedd

Teimpléad:Needs citation

Gwynedd
  • Prince of Wales (proclaimed before 1372)
Proclamation before 1372

(Not recognised by the English monarchy)

Was killed by an assassin whilst fighting against the English in France, on the orders of the English king. Contemporary records[33]
Owain Glyndŵr

(Owain ap Gruffydd) 1359 –1415

Prince of Wales arms

via the Kingdom of Gwynedd and Deheubarth

Northern Powys, by 1404–5 all Wales, by 1409 only Gwynedd
  • Prince of Wales

(From 1400 and technically until his death in 1415 as he never accepted a pardon from Henry IV and V of England.)

1400 – 1415

(Not recognised by the English monarchy.)

1415, aged 55–56, secretly buried. Contemporary records e.g. coronation ceremony (1404.)




Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

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  25. Teimpléad:EB1911
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