Lugh

Ón Vicipéid, an chiclipéid shaor.
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Dia Gaelach is ea Lugh (nó Lug agus ) a léirítear mar laoch agus Ard-Rí ón am atá thart i miotaseolaíocht na nGael.

Dia tríshleasach, "Lugus", iarsmalann Carnavalet, Páras.

Ainmneacha eile a thugtar air ná Lámhfhada, mar aitheantas ar a chumas le sleá, nó Ildánach, Samhildánach, Lonnbeimnech, agus Macnia ("laoch-bhuachalla").

Saol[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Mac Chian ó Thuatha Dé Danann agus Ethniu (iníon Bhalar na bhFomórach) atá ann. I Leabhar Gabhála na hÉireann, tugann Cian an buachaill óg Lugh do Tailtiu, banríon na bhFear Bolg, mar mhac altrama.

Ina fhear óg dó, téann Lugh go Teamhrach chun dul isteach i gcúirt ríoga Nuada, rí Thuatha Dé Danann, agus i gceann tamaill tagann sé isteach mar cheannaire orthu.

Tionchar[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Bhí Lugh nó Lú ar dhuine de na déithe ba thábhachtaí a bhí ag na sean-Cheiltigh[1], ní amháin in Éirinn ach ar fud na hEorpa. Bhí baint ag Lugh leis an ghrian agus leis an samhradh.

Ní nach ionadh mar sin gur thug sé a ainm don mhí is teo san fhéilire in Éirinn, mí Lúnasa.

Thug muintir na Breataine Bige Lleu Llaw Gyffes uirthi.

Ainmníodh Léon na Spáinne as Lugh, chomh maith le Lyon na Fraince agus Londain fosta, síltear.

1905 illustration of Lugh's bloodthirsty magical spear by H. R. Millar

Lugh, Lug, or Luat[2] Modern Irish: is one of the most prominent gods in Irish mythology. A member of the Tuatha Dé Danann, Lugh is portrayed as a warrior, a king, a master craftsman and a hero.[3] He is associated with skill and mastery in multiple disciplines, including the arts.[4] He is also associated with oaths, truth and the law,[3] and therefore with rightful kingship.[5] Lugh is linked with the harvest festival of Lughnasadh, which bears his name.

Lugh has several magical possessions. He wields an unstoppable fiery spear, a sling stone, and a hound named Failinis. He is said to have invented fidchell (a Gaelic equivalent of chess), ball games, and horse racing.[6]

Sanasaíocht[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Níltear ar aon intinn maidir le brí an ainm Lugh. Molann roinnt scoláirí go bhfuil sé fréamhaithe ar deireadh ón bPrótai-Ind-Eorpais *(h2)lewgh-, le brí "ceangail le mionn" (cuir le taobh Sean-Ghaeilge luige[7] agus Breatnaise llw, le brí "mionn, móid", agus gaolta le iarfhoirm Prótai-Ceiltise, *lugiyo-, "mionn"[8]), rud a thugann le fios gur dhia na mionn agus na gconarthaí ab ea é.[6] Nuair a bhuail Balar le Lugh sa Dara Cath Maighe Tuireadh, thug sé "clabaire" ar Lugh.[9]

In the past his name was generally believed to come from the Prótai-Ind-Eorpais root *leuk-, "flashing light", so from Victorian times he has often been considered a dia na gréine, similar to the Greco-Roman Apollo. Tá géarcheisteanna an maidir leis an bhfoghareolaíocht seo, ámh, go suntasach nach gcruthaíonn *-k- Prótai-Ind-Eorpais riamh *-g- Prótai-Ceiltis ,[10] agus dá bharr, ní ghlacann saineolaí na dteangacha Ceilteacha an lae inniu leis an sanasaíocht seo.

Bua-ainmneacha[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  • Lámfada (lámhfhada) - de bharr a chumais le sleá nó mar rí[5]
  • Ioldánach
  • Samhaildánach
  • Lonn-anscleach[11]
  • Lonnbhéimneach
  • Mac-nia (nia le brí laoch)[5]
  • Conmac[12]

Tréithe[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Deirtear gur ghaiscíoch é Lugh. Nuair nochtann sé féin os Chú Chulainn gonta sa Táin Bó Cúalnge, déantar cur síos air mar a leanas:

Sean-Ghaeilge[13] Nua-Ghaeilge[14]

Fer caín mór and dano. Berrad[15] lethan laiss. folt casbude fair. Brat úanide i forcipol immi. Cassán gelairgit isin brot úassa bruinne. Léne de sról ríg fo dergindliud do dergór i custul[16] fri gelcnes co glúnib dó. Dubscíath co calathbúali[17] findruni[18] fair. Sleg cóicrind ina láim. Foga[19] fogablaigi inna farrad. Ingnad ém reb & ábairt[20] & adabair dogní, acht ní saig nech fair & ní saig-seom for nech feib nachas faiced nech h-é

Fear caoin mór atá sé. Imeacht leathan leis. Folt catach buí aige.[21] Brat uaine dealg-fheistithe thairis. Casán[22] gealairgid sa bhrat os a bhrollach. Léine de shról rí faoi dhearg-insertion dearg-óir corntha ar ghealchneas go glúnta dó. Dubhsciath chrua-chabhradh eileactaire aige. Sleá cúig-rinn ina láimh. Fogha gabhlach i bhfarradh. Neamhghnách is ea reabh[23] agus beart agus spórt a dhéanann sé. Ach none accosts him and he accosts none as if no one could see him.

Elsewhere, Lugh is described as a young, tall man with bright red cheeks, white sides, a bronze-colored face, and blood-colored hair.[24] He was stern, swift to anger, eager for combat, a noble warrior, and a hero with a sweet tongue.

In the brief narrative Baile in Scáil, Lugh is described as being very large and very beautiful and also as a spear-wielding horseman.[25]

Seanscéalta[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Birth[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Lugh's father is Cian of the Tuatha Dé Danann, and his mother is Ethniu: daughter of Balor, of the Fomhóraigh. Sa Cath Maige Tuired, their union is a dynastic marriage following an alliance between the Tuatha Dé and the Fomorians.[26] In the Leabhar Gabhála na hÉireann, Cian gives the boy to Tailte, queen of the Fir Bolg, in altramas.[27] In the Dinnseanchas, Lugh, the foster-son of Tailte, is described as the "son of the Dumb Champion".[28] In the poem Baile Suthain Sith Eamhna, Lugh is called "descendant of the poet."[29]

A béaloideas told to John O'Donovan by Shane O'Dugan of Toraigh in 1835 recounts the birth of a grandson of Balor who grows up to kill his grandfather. The grandson is unnamed, his father is called Mac Cinnfhaelaidh and the manner of his killing of Balor is different, but it has been taken as a version of the birth of Lugh, and was adapted as such by Lady Gregory. In this tale, Balor hears a druid's prophecy that he will be killed by his own grandson. To prevent this he imprisons his only daughter in the Tór Mór (great tower) of Oileán Toraí. She is cared for by twelve women, who are to prevent her ever meeting or even learning of the existence of men. On the mainland, Mac Cinnfhaelaidh owns a magic cow who gives such abundant milk that everyone, including Balor, wants to possess her. While the cow is in the care of Mac Cinnfhaelaidh's brother Mac Samthainn, Balor appears in the form of a little red-haired boy and tricks him into giving him the cow. Looking for revenge, Mac Cinnfhaelaidh calls on a leanan sídhe called Biróg, who transports him by magic to the top of Balor's tower, where he seduces Eithne. In time she gives birth to triplets, which Balor gathers up in a sheet and sends to be drowned in a whirlpool. The messenger drowns two of the babies but unwittingly drops one child into the harbour, where he is rescued by Biróg. She takes him to his father, who gives him to his brother, Goibhniu the smith, in fosterage.[30]

There may be further triplism associated with his birth. His father in the folktale is one of a triad of brothers, Mac Cinnfhaelaidh, Gavida, and Mac Samthainn, and his father in the medieval texts, Cian, is often mentioned together with his brothers Cú and Cethen.[31][32] Lebor Gabála Érenn[33] Two characters called Lugaid, a popular medieval Irish name thought to derive from Lugh, have three fathers: Lugaid Riab nDerg (Lugaid of the Red Stripes) was the son of the three Findemna or fair triplets,[34] and Lugaid mac Con Roí was also known as mac Trí Con, "son of three hounds".[35] In Ireland's other great "sequestered maiden" story, the tragedy of Deirdre, the king's intended is carried off by three brothers, who are hunters with hounds.[36] The canine imagery continues with Cian's brother Cú ("hound"), another Lugaid, Lugaid Mac Con (son of a hound), and Lugh's son Cú Chulainn.[37] A fourth Lugaid was Lugaid Loígde, a legendary King of Tara and ancestor of (or inspiration for) Lugaid Mac Con.

Lugh joins the Tuatha Dé Danann[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

As a young man Lugh travels to Teamhraigh to join the court of King Nuada of the Tuatha Dé Danann. The doorkeeper will not let him in unless he has a skill he can use to serve the king. He offers his services as a wright, a smith, a champion, a swordsman, a harpist, a hero, a poet, historian, a sorcerer, and a craftsman, but each time is rejected as the Tuatha Dé Danann already have someone with that skill. When Lugh asks if they have anyone with all those skills simultaneously, the doorkeeper has to admit defeat, and Lugh joins the court and is appointed Chief Ollam of Ireland.[38] He wins a flagstone-throwing contest against Oghma, the champion, and entertains the court with his cláirseach. The Tuatha Dé Danann are, at that time, oppressed by the Fomorians, and Lugh is amazed how meekly they accept their oppression. Nuada wonders if this young man could lead them to freedom. Lugh is given command over the Tuatha Dé Danann, and he begins making preparations for war.[39]

Mic Tuireann[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tuireann and Cian, Lugh's father, are old enemies, and one day his sons, Brian, Iuchar, and Iucharba spot Cian in the distance and decide to kill him. They find him hiding in the form of a pig, but Cian tricked the brothers into allowing him to transform back to a man before they killed him, giving Lugh the legal right to claim compensation for a father rather than just a pig. When they try to bury him, the ground spits his body back twice before keeping him down, and eventually confesses that it is a grave to Lugh. Lugh holds a feast and invites the brothers, and during it he asks them what they would demand as compensation for the murder of their father. They reply that death would be the only just demand, and Lugh agrees. He then accuses them of the murder of his father, Cian, and sets them a series of seemingly impossible quests. The brothers go on an adventure and achieve them all except the last one, which will surely kill them. Despite Tuireann's pleas, Lugh demands that they proceed and, when they are all fatally wounded, he denies them the use of one of the items they have retrieved, a magic pigskin which heals all wounds. They die of their wounds and Tuireann dies of grief over their bodies.[40]

Cath Maighe Tuireadh[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Using the magic artifacts the sons of Tuireann have gathered, Lugh leads the Tuatha Dé Danann in the Cath Maighe Tuireadh against the Fomorians. Prior to the battle, Lugh asks each man and woman in his army what art he or she will bring to the fray. He then addressed his army in speech, which elevated each warrior's spirit to that of a king or lord.[41] Nuada is killed in the battle by Balor. Lugh faces Balor, who opens his terrible, poisonous eye that kills all it looks upon, but Lugh shoots a sling-stone that drives his eye out the back of his head, wreaking havoc on the Fomorian army behind. After the victory Lugh finds Breas, the half-Fomorian former king of the Tuatha Dé Danann, alone and unprotected on the battlefield, and Breas begs for his life. If he is spared, he promises, he will ensure that the cows of Ireland always give milk. The Tuatha Dé refuse the offer. He then promises four harvests a year, but the Tuatha Dé say one harvest a year suits them. But Lugh spares his life on the condition that he teach the Tuatha Dé how and when to plough, sow, and reap.[42]

Later life agus bás[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Lugh instituted an event similar to the Olympic games called the Assembly of Talti which finished on Lúnasa in memory of his foster-mother, Tailte, at the town that bears her name (now Teltown, Contae na Mí). He likewise instituted Lúnasa fairs in the areas of Carman agus An Nás in honour of Carman and Nás, the eponymous tutelary goddess of these two regions. Horse races and displays of martial arts were important activities at all three fairs. However, Lúnasaitself is a celebration of Lugh's triumph over the spirits of the Alltar who had tried to keep the harvest for themselves. It survived long into Christian times and is still celebrated under a variety of names.

According to a poem of the dinnseanchas, Lugh was responsible for the death of Breas. He made 300 wooden cows, and filled them with a bitter, poisonous red liquid which was then "milked" into pails and offered to Breas to drink. Breas, who was under an obligation not to refuse hospitality, drank it down without flinching, and it killed him.[43]

Lugh is said to have invented the board game ficheall.[44]

One of his wives, Buach, had an affair with Cermait, son of Daghdha.[45] Lugh killed him in revenge, but Cermait's sons, Mac Coill, Mac Cécht, and Mac Gréine, killed Lugh in return, spearing him through the foot then drowning him in Loch Lugborta[46]. He had ruled for forty years. Cermait was later revived by his father, the Daghda, who used the smooth or healing end of his staff to bring Cermait back to life.[45]

Scéalaíochtaí and nósanna eile[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  • In the Rúraíocht he fathered Cú Chulainn with the mortal maiden Deichtine. When Cú Chulainn lay wounded after a gruelling series of combats during the Táin Bó Cuailnge, Lugh appeared and healed his wounds over a period of three days.
  • In Baile in Scáil, a story of the Scéalaíocht na Ríthe, Lugh appeared in a vision to Conn Cétchathach. Enthroned on a daïs, he directed a beautiful woman called the Sovereignty of Ireland to serve Conn a portion of meat and a cup of red leann, ritually confirming his right to rule and the dynasty that would follow him.
  • San Fhiannaíocht, the dwarf cláirseacher Cnú Deireóil claimed to be Lugh's son.[47]
  • The Luigne, a people who inhabited Counties Meath and Sligo, claimed descent from him.
  • Ainle is listed as the son of Lugh Longhand (here called "Leo lam-fota")[48] and is killed by Curnan the Blacklegged in the Rennes Dinsenchas.[28] Ainle, whose name means "champion" is described as being renowned and glorious, but in the same poetic verse is also described as being a weakling with no grip in battle.[49]
  • In the Dindsenchas, Luat the son of Scal Balb (another name of Cian) is mentioned as the husband of Bairend.[50]
  • Lugh appears in folklore as a trickster, and in Contae Mhaigh Eo, thunderstorms were referred to as battles between Lugh and Balar, which leads some to speculate that he was a storm god.

Clann[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tugtar do Lugh an t-ainm máthartha mac Ethlenn ( nó mac Ethnenn) agus an t-ainm athartha mac Céin.[5] Garmhac máthartha de thíoránach na bhFomhórach, Balar, ab ea é, ar mharaigh Lugh é sa Chath Maighe Tuireadh. Manannán, dia na mara, ab ea a athair altrama.

He had several wives, including Buí (accm Buach or Bua) and Nás, daughters of Ruadri Ruad, king of Britain. Buí lived and was buried at Knowth[51]. Nás was buried at Naas, County Kildare, which is named after her. Lugh had a son, Ibic, by Nás.[52] As Luat, Lugh had a wife named Bairend who was killed when disease broke her back.[2]

His daughter or sister was Ebliu, who married Fintan. By the mortal Deichtine, he had another son, the hero Cú Chulainn, Lugh's son is the hero Cú Chulainn, who is believed to be an incarnation of Lugh.[53][54].

Maoin[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Lug possessed a number of magical items, retrieved by the sons of Tuirill Piccreo as told in Leabhar Gabhála na hÉireann. The late narrative Oidheadh Chlainne Tuireann not only gives a list of items gathered for Lugh, but also adds such gifts from the sea god Manannán as an claíomh Fragarach, an capall Enbarr (Aonbarr), an bád Scuabtuinne, a chathéide agus a chlogad.

Sleánna Lughaidh[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Teimpléad:Phríomhalt Lugh's spear, according to the text of Ceithre shéid, was said to be impossible to overcome,[55] taken to Ireland from Gorias (or Findias).[56]

Lugh obtained the Spear of Assal (Gaeilge: Gae Assail) as fine (éric) imposed on the children of Tuirill Piccreo (or Biccreo), according to the short account in Lebor Gabála Érenn (Poem LXV, 319),[56] which adds that the incantation "Ibar (Yew)" made the cast always hit its mark, and "Athibar (Re-Yew)" caused the spear to return.

In a full narrative version called [A]oidhe Chloinne Tuireann (The Fate of the Children of Tuireann),[57][58] from copies no earlier than the 18th century, Lugh demands the spear named Ar-éadbair or Areadbhair (Early Modern Irish: Aꞃéadḃaiꞃ) which belonged to Pisear, king of Persia, that its tip had to be kept immersed in a pot of water to keep it from igniting, a property similar to the Lúin of Celtchar. This spear is also called "Slaughterer"[59] in translation.

There is yet another name that Lugh's spear goes by: "A [yew] tree, the finest of the wood" (Early Modern Irish: eó bo háille d'ḟíoḋḃaiḃ),[57]Teimpléad:Rp occurring in an inserted verse within The Fate of the Children of Tuireann. "The famous yew of the wood" (ibar alai fhidbaidha) is also the name that Lugh's spear is given in a tract which alleges that it, the Lúin of Celtchar and the spear Crimall that blinded Cormac Mac Airt were one and the same weapon (tract in TCD MS 1336 (olim H 3. 17), col. 723, discussed in the Lúin page).[60]

Lugh's projectile weapon, whether a dart or missile, was envisioned by symbolic of lightning-weapon.[61] Lugh's sling rod, named "Lugh's Chain", was the rainbow and the Milky Way. Unlike the rod-sling, Lugh had no need to wield the spear himself. It was alive and thirsted so for blood that only by steeping its head in a sleeping-draught of pounded fresh poppy seeds could it be kept at rest. When battle was near, it was drawn out; then it roared and struggled against its thongs, fire flashed from it, and it tore through the ranks of the enemy once slipped from the leash, never tired of slaying.[62]

Sling-stone[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

According to the brief accounts in the Lebor Gabála Érenn, Lugh used the "sling-stone" (cloich tabaill) to slay his grandfather, Balor the Strong-Smiter in the Battle of Magh Tuired.[63] The narrative Cath Maige Tured, preserved in a unique 16th century copy, words it slightly different saying that Lugh used the sling-stone (here liic talma § 133, i.e. lía "stone" of the 'tailm "sling") to destroy the evil eye of Balor of the Piercing Eye (Bolur Birugderc).[64]

A certain poem recorded by O'Curry in English translation[65] says that the missile fired by Lugh was a tathlum (táthluib "(slingstone made of) cement").

Fragarach[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Lugh is also seen girt with the Freagarthach (better known as Fragarach), the sword of Manannán, in the assembly of the Tuatha Dé Danann in the Fate of the Children of Tuireann.

Lugh's horse and magic boat[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Lugh had a horse named Aenbharr which could fare over both land and sea. Like much of his equipment, it was furnished to him by the sea god Manannán mac Lir. When the Children of Tuireann asked to borrow this horse, Lugh begrudged them, saying it would not be proper to make a loan of a loan. Consequently, Lugh was unable to refuse their request to use Lugh's currach (coracle) or boat, the "Wave-Sweeper" (Gaeilge: Sguaba Tuinne).[66]

In the Lebor Gabála,[67] Gainne and Rea were the names of the pair of horses belonging to the king of the isle of Sicily [on the (Tyrrhene sea)], which Lug demanded as éric from the sons of Tuirill Briccreo.

Lugh's hound[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Teimpléad:Main article Failinis was the name of the whelp of the King of Ioruaidhe that Lugh demanded as éiric (a forfeit) in the Oidhead Chloinne Tuireann. This concurs with the name of the hound mentioned in an "Ossianic Ballad",[68] sometimes referred to by its opening line "Dám Thrír Táncatair Ille (They came here as a band of three)". In the ballad, the hound is called Ṡalinnis (Shalinnis) or Failinis (in the Lismore text),[69] and belonged to a threesome from Iruaide whom the Fianna encounter. It is described as "the ancient grayhound... that had been with Lugh of the Mantles, / Given him by the sons of Tuireann Bicreann;..."[70]

That hound of mightiest deeds, Which was irresistible in hardness of combat, Was better than wealth ever known, A ball of fire every night.

Other virtues had that beautiful hound (Better this property than any other property), Mead or wine would grow of it, Should it bathe in spring water.

O'Curry's excerpt ends here, but the subsequent verse runs "The three full-fledged heroes are called Sél, Donait and Domhnán. The dog of the fairest figure, Failinis was brought to Finn". This threesome also appears in Acallamh na Sénorach though in that work the wonder-dog is called Fer Mac.

Comparative Mythology[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Lugh corresponds to the pan-Celtic god Lugus, and his Welsh counterpart is Lleu Llaw Gyffes. He has also been equated with Mercury.[6] Sometimes he is interpreted as a storm god[71] and, less often today, as a sun god.[4] Others have noted a similarity in Lugh's slaying of Balor a Celtic analog to the slaying of Baldr by Loki.[72] Lugh's mastery of all arts has led many to link him with the unnamed Gaulish god Julius Caesar identifies with Mercury, whom he describes as the "inventor of all the arts".[73] Caesar describes the Gaulish Mercury as the most revered deity in Gaul, overseeing journeys and business transactions.

St. Mologa has been theorized to be a Christian continuation of the god Lugh.[72]

Toponymy[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

The County of Louth in Ireland is named after the village of Louth, which is named after the God Lugh. Historically, the place name has had various spellings; "Lugmad", "Lughmhaigh", and "Lughmhadh" (see Historic Names List, for full listing). is the modern simplified spelling. Other places named for Lugh include the cairn at Seelewey (Suidhe Lughaidh, or Lug's Seat), Dunlewey, and Rath-Lugaidh in Carney, Sligo.[72] Seelewey was located in Moyturra Chonlainn and, according to local folklore, was a place where giants used to gather in olden days.[72]

Féach freisin[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Príomhfhoinsí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Fofhoinsí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  • Cross, Tom Peete and Clark Harris Slover. Ancient Irish Tales, Henry Holt & Company, Inc., 1936. ISBN 1-56619-889-5.
  • Ellis, Peter Berresford. Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-19-508961-8.
  • MacKillop, James. Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-280120-1.
  • Ovist, Krista L. The integration of Mercury and Lugus: Myth and history in late Iron Age and early Roman Gaul. Chicago: University of Chicago Divinity School dissertation, pp. 703, 2004. (link)
  • Wood, Juliette. The Celts: Life, Myth, and Art. Thorsons Publishers, 2002. ISBN 0-00-764059-5.

Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. bbc.co.uk (27 D.F. 2011). "Féilte na SeanGhael". Dáta rochtana: 4 Lúnasa 2018.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "The Metrical Dindshenchas: CRÚACHÁN AIGLE".
  3. 3.0 3.1 Olmsted, Garrett. The Gods of the Celts and the Indo-Europeans. University of Innsbruck, 1994, lch. 117
  4. 4.0 4.1 Monaghan, Patricia. The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing, 2004, ll. 296-297
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Koch, John T. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2006, lch. 1200
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Myth, Legend & Romance: An encyclopaedia of the Irish folk tradition. Prentice Hall Press, 1991. pp.273-276
  7. 1 luige ar eDIL
  8. Matasović, Ranko, Etymological dictionary of proto-Celtic, Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 9, Leiden agus Boston: Brill, 2009, lch. 247.
  9. "The Second Battle of Moytura".
  10. Peter Schrijver, Studies in British Celtic historical phonology, Rodopi, 1995, ll. 348-348
  11. "The Second Battle of Moytura".
  12. MacNeill, Eoin. Duanaire Finn: The book of the Lays of Fionn. Irish Texts Society, 1953, lch. 205
  13. Táin Bó Cúailnge Recension I, lch. 64, ar CELT
  14. Aistrithe sách focal ar fhocal ón tSean/Meán-Ghaeilge ag Marcas
  15. berrad ar eDIL
  16. custal ar eDIL
  17. 2 búal ar eDIL
  18. findruine ar eDIL
  19. foga
  20. 2 abairt ar eDIL
  21. fáir2 ar teanglann.ie FGB
  22. casán1
  23. reabh ar teanglann.ie FGB; beart, cleas
  24. "Ar an doirseoir ris an deaghlaoch".
  25. "Baile in Scáil: The Phantom's Frenzy".
  26. Whitley Stokes (eag. & aistr.), "The Second Battle of Moytura", Revue Celtique 12, 1891, lch. 59
  27. Leabhar Gabhála na hÉireann §59
  28. 28.0 28.1 "Revue celtique".
  29. Skene, William Forbes (1890). "Celtic Scotland: Land and people". Retrieved on 2 August 2019. 
  30. John O'Donovan (eag. & aistr.), Annala Rioghachta Éireann: Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters Iml. 1, 1856, ll. 18–21, footnote S; T. W. Rolleston, Myths and Legends of the Celtic Race, 1911, ll. 109–112; Lady Gregory, Gods and Fighting Men, 1094, ll. 27–29
  31. e.g. according to the Dindsenchas Cú killed Cethen, and there once was a well-known phrase that "Thou hast acted for me Cú and Cethen."
  32. "The Prose Tales in the Rennes Dindshenchas (I) - Translation [text]".
  33. §61; "The Fate of the Children of Tuirenn", Tom Peete Cross & Clark Harris Slover (eags.), Ancient Irish Tales, Henry Holt & Co., 1936, ll. 49–81
  34. Vernam Hull (ed. & Trans.), "Aided Meidbe: The Violent Death of Medb", Speculum v.13 issue 1. (Jan. 1938), ll. 52–61
  35. James MacKillop, Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, Oxford University Press, 1998, lch. 273
  36. "Deirdre, or the Exile of the sons of Usnech" (ed. & trans. unknown)
  37. MacKillop 1998, ll. 102–104, 272–273
  38. "Lugh".
  39. Stokes 1891, ll. 75–81
  40. "The Fate of the Children of Tuirenn", Tom Peete Cross & Clark Harris Slover (eds.), Ancient Irish Tales, Henry Holt & Co., 1936, ll. 49–81
  41. "Part 120 of The Second Battle of Moytura".
  42. Stokes 1891, ll. 81–111
  43. E. J. Gwynn (eag. & aistr.), The Metrical Dindshenchas Iml. 3, 1906, Carn Hui Neit, Dán 40
  44. "John gives Celtic board game a new lease of life — Independent.ie". Independent.ie.
  45. 45.0 45.1 "How the Dagda Got His Magic Staff".
  46. The Metrical Dindsenchas "Loch Lugborta", Dán 86
  47. "Cnú Deireóil - Oxford Reference". doi:10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095619885.
  48. "Part 3 of The Metrical Dindshenchas".
  49. Metrical dinnseanc
  50. "The Metrical Dindshenchas".
  51. "The Metrical Dindshenchas: Cnogba".
  52. E. J. Gwynn (eag. & aistr.), The Metrical Dindshenchas Iml 3, 1906, Dán 5: Nás
  53. Evans-Wentz, Walter (1911). The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries, lch. 369
  54. Hull, Eleanor (1898). The Cuchullin Saga in Irish Literature.
  55. Vernam Hall ed.,tr., "The four jewels of the Tuatha Dé Danann," Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 18 (1930) 73–89. "No battle was maintained against the spear of Lug or against him who had it in his hand,"
  56. 56.0 56.1 Macalister, R. A. S., ed. tr., Lebor Gabála Érenn: The Book Of The Taking Of Ireland, Part IV (1941) [1] Lugh's spear is from Gorias in all three recensions (¶305, ¶315, ¶357). However, Hull's "Four Jewels" text swaps weapons between owners in the attached verse portion, making it Lug's sword that came from Gorias. Something similar happens in the verse invoked in Geoffrey Keating's History of Ireland, and in Comyn ed. tr., Lugh's sword is from Gorias, Lugh's spear is from Findias (Lugh becomes owner of both)
  57. 57.0 57.1 O'Curry, Eugene, ed. tr. "The Fate of the Children of Tuireann", The Atlantis IV, London 1863, 157–240.
  58. O'Duffy, Richard J. ed. tr., Oidhe Chloinne Tuireann. The Fate of the Children of Tuireann. Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language, Dublin 1888
  59. Joyce, P. W. (Patrick Weston), 1827–1914, tr. "The Fate of the Children of Turenn; or, The Quest for the Eric-Fine", Old Celtic Romances (3rd ed., 1907) (reprint 1920)
  60. This tract was recapped by Hennessy, in his introduction, p.xiv, to his edition of Mesca Ulad. The tract occurs in the manuscript of TCD MS 1336 (olim H 3. 17) immediately after the h text of the Expulsion of the Déssi, Kuno Meyer, Anecdota, I, pp.15–24.
  61. T. F. O'Rahilly, Early Irish History and Mythology (1946), pp.60–5
  62. Charles Squire, Chapter 5 "The Gods of the Gaels" in The Mythology of the British Islands, 1905, republished as Celtic Myth and Legend, online at http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/cml/
  63. op. cit. ¶312, ¶312, ¶364
  64. Gray, Elizabeth A. ed. tr., Cath Maige Tuired: the second battle of Mag Tuired ([Dublin]: Irish Texts Society [Series 52] 1982.), English
  65. O'Curry, Eugene Manners and Customs II, 252. He translates 5 strophes from a poem from a vellum MS "formerly in the possession of Mr. W. Monck Mason, but lately sold at a public auction in London."
  66. Earráid leis an lua: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ReferenceA
  67. Macalister ed., ¶319 (loc. cit.)
  68. Stern, L. Chr. ed., tr. (into German), in: "Eine ossianische Ballade aus dem XII. Jahrhundert", Festschrift Whitley Stokes zum siebzigsten Geburtstage, 1900, pp. 7–12, edited from LL 207b
  69. Wh. Stokes, Book of Lismore, fo. 153 b. recension of the ballad in the Notice on Festschrift above, in: Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie, III, p.432–
  70. O'Curry, Eugene, "Tri Thruaighe na Scéalaigheachta (Three Sorrows of Storytelling)" The Atlantis III, London 1862, 396–7. The four verses excerpted do not include the hound's name.
  71. Ward, Alan (2011). The Myths of the Gods: Structures in Irish Mythology. p.13
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.3 "The Dolmens of Ireland" (1897): 796, 802, 806, 813. Indiana University: Chapman and Hall. Retrieved on 6 August 2019. 
  73. Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 6:17


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