Intleacht

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Sainmhíníodh intleacht ar go leor bealaí: an cumas loighic, tuiscint, féinfheasacht, foghlaim, eolas mothúchánach, réasúnaíocht, pleanáil, cruthaitheacht, smaointeoireacht chriticiúil agus réiteach fadhbanna. Ar bhonn níos ginearálta, is féidir cur síos a dhéanamh uirthi mar an cumas faisnéis a thabhair faoi deara nó a thuiscint, agus í a choinneáil mar eolas atá le cur i bhfeidhm ar iompraíochtaí oiriúnaitheacha laistigh de thimpeallacht nó chomhthéacs. sainmhínithe i go leor bealaí: an cumas chun loighic, a thuiscint, féinfheasacht, foghlaim, eolas mhothúchánach, réasúnaíocht, pleanáil, cruthaitheacht, smaointeoireacht chriticiúil, agus réiteach fadhbanna. Ar bhonn níos ginearálta, is féidir cur síos a dhéanamh air mar an cumas faisnéis a bhrath nó a fháil, agus í a choinneáil mar eolas atá le cur i bhfeidhm ar iompraíochtaí oiriúnaitheacha laistigh de timpeallacht nó i gcomhthéacs.

Is minic a dhéantar staidéar ar intleach i ndaoine ach breathnaíodh uirthi freisin in ainmhithe neamh-dhaonna agus i bplandaí . Tugtar intleacht shaorga ar intleach i meaisíní, a chuirtear i bhfeidhm go coitianta i gcórais ríomhaireachta a úsáideann cláir agus, uaireanta, crua-earraí speisialaithe.

Stair an téarma[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Eascraíonn an focal “ Intleacht ” ón ainmfhocal Laidineach intelligiaintellēctus, a eascraíonn as an mbriathar intelligere, chun a thuiscint nó a bhrath. Sa Mheánaois, tháinig an focal intellectus chun cinn mar théarma teicniúil léannta i gcomhair na tuisceana, agus aistriúchán don téarma fealsúnachta Gréagach nous . Bhí an téarma seo, áfach, nasctha go láidir leis na teoiricí mheitifisiciúla agus chosmeolaíocha teoiricí den scolaíochas teileolaíoch , lena n-áirítear teoiricí neamhbhásmhaireachta an anam, agus coincheap na hIntleachta Gníomhaí. Dhiúltaigh na fealsúna san nua-aois luth mar Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, agus David Hume an cur chuige iomlán seo i leith staidéar a dhéanamh ar an nádúr , arbh fhearr leo go léir an focal "tuiscint" (in ionad "intellectus " nó "Intleacht ") ina gcuid saothar fealsúnachta i mBéarla. [1] D'úsáid Hobbes, mar shampla, ina leabhar De Corpore, (a foilsíodh sa Laidin) na focail " intellectus intelligit ", a aistríodh sa leagan Béarla mar "the understanding understandeth", mar shampla tipiciúil de áiféis loighciúil. [2] Mar sin d'éirigh úsáid an téarma "intelligence" neamhchoitianta i bhfealsúnacht an Bhéarla, ach glacadh leis níos déanaí (leis na teoiricí scolártha a thugann sé le fios anois) san síceolaíocht níos comhaimseartha.

Sainmhínithe[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tá an sainmhíniú ar intleacht conspóideach. Mhol roinnt grúpaí síceolaithe na sainmhínithe seo a leanas:

Ó " Mainstream Science on Intelligence " (1994), ráiteas op-ed san Wall Street Journal arna shíniú ag 52 taighdeoir (as 131 iomlán ar tugadh cuireadh dóibh síniú):[3]

"A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do."[4]

From Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns (1995), tuarascáil a d’fhoilsigh Bord Gnóthaí Eolaíochta Chumann Síceolaíochta Mheiriceá :

"Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, and none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions."[5]

Chomh maith leis na sainmhínithe sin, mhol taighdeoirí síceolaíochta agus foghlama sainmhínithe ina hntleachta mar seo a leanas:

Taighdeoir Athfhriotal
Alfred Binet Judgment, otherwise called "good sense", "practical sense", "initiative", the faculty of adapting one's self to circumstances ... auto-critique.

(Gaeilge: Breithiúnas, ar a dtugtar "ciall mhaith", "ciall phraiticiúil", "tionscnaíocht", dámh an duine féin a chur in oiriúint do chúinsí ... uathchritíc )[6]

David Wechsler The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.

( Gaeilge:Cumas comhiomlán nó domhanda an duine gníomhú go feidhmiúil, smaoineamh go réasúnach, agus déileáil go héifeachtach lena thimpeallacht) .[7]

Lloyd Humphreys "...the resultant of the process of acquiring, storing in memory, retrieving, combining, comparing, and using in new contexts information and conceptual skills"

(An GhaeilgeGaeilge: .. toradh an phróisis chun faisnéis agus scileanna coincheapúla a fháil, a stóráil sa chuimhne, a aisghabháil, a chomhcheangal, a chur i gcomparáid agus a úsáid i gcomhthéacsanna nua.).[8]

Howard Gardner To my mind, a human intellectual competence must entail a set of skills of problem solving — enabling the individual to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that he or she encounters and, when appropriate, to create an effective product — and must also entail the potential for finding or creating problems — and thereby laying the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge.[9]
Linda Gottfredson The ability to deal with cognitive complexity.[10]
Robert Sternberg & William Salter Goal-directed adaptive behavior.[11]
Reuven Feuerstein The theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability describes intelligence as "the unique propensity of human beings to change or modify the structure of their cognitive functioning to adapt to the changing demands of a life situation".[12]
Shane Legg & Marcus Hutter A synthesis of 70+ definitions from psychology, philosophy, and AI researchers: "Intelligence measures an agent's ability to achieve goals in a wide range of environments",[13] which has been mathematically formalized.[14]
Alexander Wissner-Gross F = T ∇ S[15]

"Intelligence is a force, F, that acts so as to maximize future freedom of action. It acts to maximize future freedom of action, or keep options open, with some strength T, with the diversity of possible accessible futures, S, up to some future time horizon, τ. In short, intelligence doesn't like to get trapped".

Intleacht an duine[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Intleacht ainmhithe neamhdhaonna[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

=== fachtóir g i measc ainmhithe neamhdhaonna ===

Intleacht na bplandaí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Intleacht shaorga[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. Maich (1995). "{{{title}}}". Blackwell. 
  2. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013.
  3. Teimpléad:Harvnb
  4. Gottfredson, Linda S. (1997). "Citation is missing a title. Either specify one, or click here and a bot will try to complete the citation details for you. {{{title}}}". Intelligence 24: 13–23. doi:10.1016/s0160-2896(97)90011-8. ISSN 0160-2896. 
  5. "Citation is missing a title. Either specify one, or click here and a bot will try to complete the citation details for you. {{{title}}}" (1996). American Psychologist 51 (2): 77–101. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.51.2.77. ISSN 0003-066X. Retrieved on 9 October 2014. 
  6. Binet, Alfred (1916). "The development of intelligence in children: The Binet-Simon Scale": 37–90. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. “originally published as Méthodes nouvelles pour le diagnostic du niveau intellectuel des anormaux. L'Année Psychologique, 11, 191–244” 
  7. Wechsler, D (1944). "The measurement of adult intelligence". Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. OCLC 219871557.  ASIN = B000UG9J7E
  8. Humphreys, L. G. (1979). "The construct of general intelligence". Intelligence 3 (2): 105–120. doi:10.1016/0160-2896(79)90009-6. 
  9. "Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences" (1993). New York: Basic Books. OCLC 221932479. 
  10. Gottfredson, L. (1998). "The General Intelligence Factor". Scientific American Presents 9 (4): 24–29. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. 
  11. Sternberg RJ (1982). "Handbook of human intelligence". Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. OCLC 11226466. 
  12. Feuerstein, R., Feuerstein, S., Falik, L & Rand, Y. (1979; 2002). Dynamic assessments of cognitive modifiability. ICELP Press, Jerusalem: Israel; Feuerstein, R. (1990). The theory of structural modifiability. In B. Presseisen (Ed.), Learning and thinking styles: Classroom interaction. Washington, DC: National Education Associations
  13. Earráid leis an lua: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named LeggHutter2007
  14. "Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence" (2007). Minds and Machines 17: 391–444. doi:10.1007/s11023-007-9079-x. Bibcode2007arXiv0712.3329L. 
  15. Tá ort na shonrú' 'teideal = agus' 'url = nuair a úsáideann {{ lua idirlín}}."". Archived from the original on 4 September 2016.