IPA don Ghaeilge

Ón Vicipéid, an chiclipéid shaor.
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Taispeánann na cairteanna thíos International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) fuaimnithe na Gaeilge in ailt ar an Vicipéid. Féach fóineolaíocht na Gaeilge le tuilleadh plé ar an bhfóineolaíocht a fheiceáil.

leathan[1] caol[2] English approximations
IPA Sampla IPA Sampla
Teimpléad:Big bain, scuab Teimpléad:Big béal, cnáib boot; beautiful
Teimpléad:Big dorn, nead Teimpléad:Big dearg, cuid do (but dental), though in Hiberno-English; dew
Teimpléad:Big fós, graf
Teimpléad:Big fíon, stuif
fool; fuel
Teimpléad:Big gasúr, bog Teimpléad:Big geata, carraig goose; argue
Teimpléad:Big dhorn
Teimpléad:Big dhearg
(no equivalent); yellow
Teimpléad:Big[3] Shasana, shean
thaisce, theanga
hata, na héisc
Teimpléad:Big cáis, mac Teimpléad:Big ceist, mic coot; cute
Teimpléad:Big[4] labhair, balla Teimpléad:Big[4] leabhair, goilleadh filth; million
Teimpléad:Big[4] fhlaith, bealach Teimpléad:Big[4] fhleasc, goile pool; leaf
Teimpléad:Big mór, am Teimpléad:Big milis, im moot; mute
Teimpléad:Big[5] naoi, donna Teimpléad:Big[5] ní, bainne tenth; inch
Teimpléad:Big[5] dona Teimpléad:Big[5] bainis noon; new
Teimpléad:Big ngasúr Teimpléad:Big ngeata long; angular
Teimpléad:Big poll, stop Teimpléad:Big príosún, truip poor; pure
Teimpléad:Big rí, cuairt, barr, cairr Teimpléad:Big fhréamh, tirim rule (but tapped); real (but tapped)
Teimpléad:Big Sasana, tús, speal Teimpléad:Big sean, cáis soon; sheet
Teimpléad:Big taisce, ceart Teimpléad:Big tír, beirt tool (but dental), thorn in Hiberno-English; tune
Teimpléad:Big[6] bhain, dubh
mhór, léamh
Teimpléad:Big bhéal, sibh
mhilis, nimh
have; view
Teimpléad:Big cháis, taoiseach Teimpléad:Big cheist, deich loch (Scottish English); hue (pronounced strongly)
IPA Samplaí English approximation
Teimpléad:Big mac trap
Teimpléad:Big tá father
Teimpléad:Big ceist best
Teimpléad:Big mé, Gael pay
Teimpléad:Big ith, duine kit
Teimpléad:Big mín mean
Teimpléad:Big olc, deoch cloth
Teimpléad:Big bó, ceol roll
Teimpléad:Big dubh, fliuch good
Teimpléad:Big tú too
Teimpléad:Big solas, milis sofa
Teimpléad:Big[7] bia idea
Teimpléad:Big[7] fuar truant
Teimpléad:Big[7] saghas light
Teimpléad:Big[7] leabhar about
IPA Explanation
Teimpléad:Big Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable);
usually the first syllable except in Munster
Teimpléad:Big Secondary stress (usually found only in compounds)

Comparison to other phonetic transcription schemes[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Materials published elsewhere use somewhat different conventions from those used at Wikipedia. For example, it is a longstanding tradition to leave velarized ("broad") consonants unmarked and mark palatalized ("slender") consonants with the prime, although this is not standard IPA usage.

This section compares the IPA system used at Wikipedia (which is based on that used by Ailbhe Ní Chasaide in her description of Irish in the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, ISBN 0-521-63751-1) with the system used in some other works.

IPA Ní Chasaide (1999)[8]
Quiggin (1906)[9]
Breatnach (1947)[10]
Ó Sé (2000)[11]
(Dingle Peninsula)
Mhac an Fhailigh (1968)[12]
Ó Siadhail (1988)[13]
(Cois Fhairrge)
Foclóir Póca (1993)[14]
Teimpléad:Big a æ, α a a a æ:, a: a
Teimpléad:Big æ α: a: ɑː a: ɑ: a:
Teimpléad:Big b b b b b b
Teimpléad:Big b′ b′ b′ b′ b′ b′
Teimpléad:Big c k′ k′ k′ k′ k′ k′
Teimpléad:Big ç ç ç x′ ç x′ x′
Teimpléad:Big d̪ˠ d d d d d d
Teimpléad:Big d̠ʲ d′ d′ d′ d′ d′ d′
Teimpléad:Big e e: e: e: e: e:
Teimpléad:Big ɛ ɛ, e e e e e e
Teimpléad:Big ə ə ə ə, ɪ ə ə ə
Teimpléad:Big αi əi ai əi ai ai
Teimpléad:Big au αu əu ou əu au au
Teimpléad:Big f f f f f f
Teimpléad:Big f′ f′ f′ f′ f′ f′
Teimpléad:Big ɡ g g ɡ g g g
Teimpléad:Big ɣ γ ɣ ɣ ɣ γ
Teimpléad:Big h h h, h′ h h h h
Teimpléad:Big i i: i: i: i: i:
Teimpléad:Big ɪ ï, i, y i i i i i
Teimpléad:Big ia iːə i:ə
Teimpléad:Big j j j ɣ′ j ɣ′ γ′
Teimpléad:Big ɟ g′ g′ ɡ′ g′ g′ g′
Teimpléad:Big k k k k k k k
Teimpléad:Big l̪ˠ L l l L L l
Teimpléad:Big l l
Teimpléad:Big l̠ʲ L′ l′ l′ L′ L′ l′
Teimpléad:Big l l′ l′ l′
Teimpléad:Big m m m m m m
Teimpléad:Big m′ m′ m′ m′ m′ m′
Teimpléad:Big n̪ˠ N n n N N n
Teimpléad:Big n n n
Teimpléad:Big n̠ʲ N′ n′ n′ N′ N′ n′
Teimpléad:Big n′ n′ n′
Teimpléad:Big ɲ ɲ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′
Teimpléad:Big ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ
Teimpléad:Big o o:, ɔ: o: o: o: o:
Teimpléad:Big ʌ ɔ, o̤ o o o o o
Teimpléad:Big p p p p p p
Teimpléad:Big p′ p′ p′ p′ p′ p′
Teimpléad:Big ɾˠ r, R r r r r r
Teimpléad:Big ɾʲ r′ r′ r′ r′ r′ r′
Teimpléad:Big s s s s s s
Teimpléad:Big ɕ ʃ ʃ ʃ ʃ s′ s′
Teimpléad:Big t̪ˠ t t t t t t
Teimpléad:Big t̠ʲ t′ t′ t′ t′ t′ t′
Teimpléad:Big u u: u: u: u: u:
Teimpléad:Big ɤ U u u u u u
Teimpléad:Big ua uːə u:ə
Teimpléad:Big v v′ v′ v′ w′ v′
Teimpléad:Big w w v v w w v
Teimpléad:Big x χ x x x x x

Notes[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. Irish makes contrasts between velarized ("broad") and palatalized ("slender") consonants. Velarized consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ˠ›, are pronounced with the back of the tongue raised toward the velum, which happens to the /l/ in English pill in some accents, like RP and General American, but not in Hiberno-English. In Irish orthography, broad consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹a›, ‹o›, ‹u›. Note that the superscript character ‹ˠ› is not a capital "Y" but a Greek lowercase gamma, ‹γ›.
  2. "Slender" (palatalized) consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ʲ›, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the ‹y› sound in yes. In Irish orthography, slender consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹e›, ‹i›.
  3. /h/ is neither broad nor slender.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of "l" sound. Most dialects have merged /l̪ˠ/ and /lˠ/ as /l̪ˠ/, and some have also merged /l̠ʲ/ and /lʲ/ as /lʲ/. Still others have merged /lˠ/ and /lʲ/ as /l/.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of "n" sound. Most dialects have merged /n̪ˠ/ and /nˠ/ as [n̪ˠ], and some have also merged /n̠ʲ/ and /nʲ/ as [nʲ]. Still others have merged /nˠ/ and /nʲ/ as Teimpléad:IPAblink. In parts of Munster, /n̠ʲ/ has merged with /ɲ/ in non-initial position.
  6. Also Teimpléad:IPAlink in some positions in some dialects.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 All Irish diphthongs have falling sonority; they could therefore more precisely be transliterated as iə̯, uə̯, əi̯, əu̯.
  8. Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999). "Handbook of the International Phonetic Association": 111–16. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved on 2009-01-21. 
  9. Quiggin, E. C. (1906). "A Dialect of Donegal: Being the Speech of Meenawannia in the Parish of Glenties". Cambridge University Press. 
  10. Breatnach, Risteard B. (1947). "The Irish of Ring, Co. Waterford". Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. 
  11. Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000). "Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne" (in Irish). Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann. 
  12. Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968). "The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo". Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. 
  13. Ó Siadhail, Mícheál (1988). "Learning Irish: An Introductory Self-tutor". New Haven: Yale University Press. 
  14. "Foclóir póca: English-Irish/Irish-English dictionary" (1993). Dublin: An Gúm. 

Teimpléad:IPA keys horizontal