Badb

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I Miotaseolaíocht na nGael, bandia an chogaidh ab ea Badhbh (Sean-Ghaeilge Badb), a thugann the riocht caróige uirthi féin, agus dá bharr tá aithne scaití uirthi mar Badhbh Catha. Ba chúis eagla agus suaithe í i measc gaiscí, um sruth an chatha a athrú ina leith. Nochtadh sí féin roimh cath chun an t-ár le teacht a thuar, nó tairngreacht ar bhás uasail a thabhairt. Dhéanadh sí é seo scaití le scréacha caointe, i leith is gur bhansídhe í.

Nochtadh Badhbh í féin i riocht caróige.

I dteannta lena dheirfiúracha Macha agus NeamhainAnu, ba bhall den Badhbh tréidia an chatha aitheanta mar Mór-Ríoghain.[1][2][3]

Bandia an chogaidh agus an bháis[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Sna seanscéalta Gaelacha, ba bhandia an chogaidh agus an bháis ab ea Badhbh. Thagadh sí ar an bhfód chun ár a thuar, nó páirt féin a ghlacadh i gcathanna, ina chruthaíodh sí mearbhall i measc na ngaiscí. Mar réamhtheachtaire na hoidhe, bhíodh sí ann i rochtana éagsúla. In Togail Bruidne Dá Derga, she takes the form of an ugly hag who prophesies Conaire Mór downfall.[4] She appears in a similar guise in Togail Bruidne Dá Choca to foretell the slaying of Cormac Condloinges, as well as taking the form of a Bean nighe — a woman washing Cormac's chariot and harness in a ford in what was considered an omen of death.[4][5] The cries of Badhbh may also be an ill omen: Cormac's impending death is foreshadowed with the words "The red-mouthed badbs will cry around the house, / For bodies they will be solicitous" and "Pale badbs shall shriek".[6] In this role, she has much in common with the bansídhe.[7]

She was also regularly depicted as an active participant in warfare; indeed, the battlefield was sometimes referred to as "the garden of the Badb".[8] During the First Battle of Mag Tuired, Badb — along with her sisters, Macha and Mór-Ríoghain — fights on the side of the Tuatha Dé Danann. Using their magic, the three sisters incite fear and confusion among the Fir Bolg army, conjuring "compact clouds of mist and a furious rain of fire" and allowing their enemies "neither rest nor stay for three days and nights".[9] Badhbh plays a similar role in the Táin Bó Cúailnge, terrorising and disorienting the forces of Méabh and causing many to fall on their own weapons.[6] She would often take the form of a screaming raven or crow, striking fear into those who heard her,[10] and could also be heard as a voice among the corpses on a battlefield.[4]

Tairngreacht síochána[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

I ndiaidh cloí na bhFomhórach ag na Tuatha Dé Danann sa Dara Cath Maighe Tuireadh, in ionad drochrath a thuar, chan Badhbh (nó Mór-Ríoghain iníon Earnmais) tairngreacht ag ceiliúradh an bhua agus tréimhse síochána.

Meán-Ghaeilge[2][11] Nua Ghaeilge[12]
Sith co nem.
Nem co doman.
Doman fo ním,
nert hi cach,
án[13] forlann,
lan do mil,
mid co saith.
Sam hi ngam...
Síth go neamh.
Neamh go domhain.
Domhain fé neamh,
neart i gcách,
corn fíorlán,
lán de mhil;
meá[14] go sáith.
Samhraidh i ngeimhreadh...

Tairngreacht deireadh an tsaoil[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Then she delivers a prophecy of the eventual end of the world, "foretelling every evil that would be therein, and every disease and every vengeance. Wherefore then she sang this lay below.":[3]

Meán-Ghaeilge[15][16] Nua-Ghaeilge[12]
Ni accus bith nombeo baid:
sam cin blatha,
beti bai cin blichda,

mna can feli
fir gan gail.
Gabala can righ...

feda cin mes.
Muir can toradh.

sen saobretha.
Brecfásach[17] mbrithiom-
braithiomh

cech fer.
Foglaid cech mac.
Ragaid mac i lligie a athar.
Ragaid

athair a lligi a meic.
Cliamain cach a brathar.
Ni sia nech mnai assa

tigh...
olc aimser
immera mac a athair,
imera ingen...

Ní fheicfead bith[18] a bheidh beo dom:
Samhradh gan bhláth,
Ba gan bhainne,

Mná gan fial,[19]
Fir gan ghal.
Gabháil gan rí...

Woods gan mheas[20].
Muir gan toradh...

Saobhjudgements[21] seanfhear.
Bréagfhasach[22] breitheamh,
brathadóir

gach fear.
Foghlaí gach mac.
Rachaidh mac i luí a athar,
Rachaidh

athair i luí a mhic.
Cliamhain gach bráthair.
Ní sia neach mná as a

thigh...
olcaimsir,
imreoidh mac ar a athair,
imreoidh iníon [ar a máthair] ...

Clann[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Aithnítear Badhbh go minic mar bhall den tré "Mór-Ríoghain", cé go bhfuil cuntais ann nach dtagann le chéile. I Leabhar Gabhála na hÉireann, is iad Badhbh, Macha agus Mór-Ríoghain féin atá ann mar bhall, agus iad iníonacha bandia na talamhaíochta, Ernmas.[1] De réir an leagan seo, is iad a deirfiúr Ériu, Banba agus Fódla, an triúr máthair-déithe na hÉireann.[1]

Aithníonn leaganacha eile gurbh iníonacha an draoi Cailitin ab ea Badhbh agus a deirfiúracha.

Insítear freisin sa Leabhar Gabhála gurbh ar cheann den bheirt bhan chéile dia an cogaidh Neit ab ea Badhbh.[1] Deirtear scaití gur bhean chéile rí na bhFomhórach Tethra ab ea í.[7]

Déithe chosúla[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tá an chosúlacht idir Badhbh agus Nemain ina róil mar bhandéithe láthair an chatha agus tuair bháis. Maraon le Badhbh, aithnítear Neamhain mar bhean chéile Neit agus scaití mar bhall den tré-dhia Mór-Ríoghna. Writers have sometimes used their names go hinmhalartaithe, rud a mholann gurb fhéidir gurb an bandia céanna iaf.[7] On the other hand, W. M. Hennessy notes that Badhbh and Neamhain were said to have different sets of parents, suggesting that they may not be entirely identical figures.[6]

Badhbh also appears to be closely related to the bandia na na nGallach, Catubodua, nó Bodua.[7]

Sanasaíocht[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Pointing to variants such as Irish badhbh 'hoodie crow, a fairy, a scold,' Early Irish badb, 'crow, demon,' Badba, Welsh bod, 'kite,' the Gaulish name Bodv-, in Bodvo-gnatus and the Welsh name Bodnod, Macbain (1982) suggests *bodwā- as the Proto-Celtic ancestral form. However, Julius Pokorny (1959:203) suggests *badwā- on the basis of similar data. Both MacBain (1982) and Julius Pokorny (1959:203) correlate the element with Norse böð, genitive boðvar, 'war,' and Anglo-Saxon beadu, genitive beadwe, 'battle,' suggesting that the word originally denoted 'battle' or 'strife.' Julius Pokorny (1959:203) presents the element as an extended form of the Proto-Indo-European root *bhedh- 'pierce, dig.' To this root Pokorny also links the Sanskrit bádhate, 'oppress,' and the Lithuanian bádas, 'famine'.

W. M. Hennessy argues that the word bodb or badb originally meant rage, fury, or violence, and came to mean a witch, fairy, or goddess, represented in folklore by the scald-crow, or royston-crow[6]. Peter O'Connell's 1819 Irish Dictionary defines the Badb as a "bansidhe, a female fairy, phantom, or spectre, supposed to be attached to certain families, and to appear sometimes in the form of squall-crows, or royston-crows" and badb-catha as "Fionog, a royston-crow, a squall crow". Other entries relate to her triple nature: "Macha, i. e. a royston-crow; Morrighain, i. e. the great fairy; Neamhan, i. e. Badb catha nó feannóg; a badb catha, or royston-crow."[23]

Foinsí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

Tagairtí[cuir in eagar | athraigh foinse]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Macalister, R.A.S. (aistr.) (1941). "Lebor Gabála Érenn: Book of Taking of Ireland Part 1-5". Baile Átha Cliath: Irish Texts Society. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cath Maige Tuired: The Second Battle of Mag Tuired, Text 166, Author: Unknown
  3. 3.0 3.1 Elizabeth A. Gray (eag. & aistr.), Cath Maige Tuired: The Second Battle of Mag Tuired, cuid 167, 1982
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Koch, John T. (Nollaig 2005). "Celtic Culture: a historical encyclopedia". Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. 
  5. Davidson, Hilda Ellis (1988). "Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe: early Scandinavian and Celtic Religions". Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Hennessy, W. M., "The Ancient Irish Goddess of War", Revue Celtique 1, 1870–72, ll. 32–37
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Mackillop, James (2004). "A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology". New York: Oxford University Press. 
  8. Sjoestedt, Mary-Louise (2000). "Celtic Gods and Heroes". Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.  (athchló de Gods and Heroes of the Celts, Londain: Methuen, 1949)
  9. Fraser, J. (eag. & aistr.), "The First Battle of Moytura", Ériu 8, ll. 1–63, 1915
  10. Leeming, David (Samhain 2007). "The Oxford Companion to World Mythology". Nua Eabhrac: Oxford University Press. 
  11. CMT 166 - CELT [819-820]
  12. 12.0 12.1 Aistrithe go sách litriúil agus/nó liteartha le Marcas
  13. án ar eDIL
  14. meá3
  15. "The Second Battle of Mag Tuired".
  16. CMT 168 - CELT [831-832, 833, 837-840]
  17. 1 fásach ar eDIL
  18. bith (a) Lit. ar teanglann.ie FGB
  19. fial3 Lit. ar teanglann.ie FGB
  20. meas2 2. Lit. ar teanglann.ie
  21. saobh ar teanglann.ie FGB
  22. fasach (Var. fásach1)
  23. Walter Yeeling Evans-Wentz, The Fairy-faith in Celtic Countries, 1911, ll. 304–305